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HISA04- Lecture Week 1 - 6.docx

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William Nelson

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HISA04 The Two senses of “Making History” - Revisiting the question: Which image is more historically accurate? (Columbia or Cortez) Columbus and the Indies - When Columbus looked at the Americas, he “peered through tightly woven filters of expectation and assumption from the past.” o For Example, naming it “The Indies” (Meaning the east indies)  Mostly interested in going to China (Asia) - Columbus thought that the earth was round o We also have our own filters of expectation and assumptions when looking back at Columbus - In the Caribbean sea, he saw mermaids o His writings -- He “Sighted three mermaids who came quite high out of the water,” judging them “not as pretty as they are depicter, for somehow in the face they look like men.”  Brought a certain set of expectations to the Caribbean, responding to the reader’s expectations o Why did Columbus see mermaids?  He saw mermaids because he was “high”, knowledge of biology was probably non-existent and was playing around with his audience, may have seen something that resembled a mermaid  References to the past and making stories (Odysseys)  Adding a mystic to his travels, “boosting” the exoticness to his travel o Why did Columbus write that he saw mermaids? - The image represents daily life in Asia “The Image of the East in ‘Manderville’s Travels” o For Europeans, the image of the ast was determined largely by Marco Polo and John Mandeville o Mandeville’s account was much more popular than the more accurate one of Marco Polo o Columber read both of their written accounts of the travel o He may even have taken them with him on his voyage to find westward route to the East Manderville - Manderville’s Travel published mid-14 century - Story of an Englishman travelling n the East - Popularized the idea of circumnavgiability of the earth - It had helped create an expectation of marvels in the East On the Wonders and Marvels in Mandeville - M’s Travel exploit eyewitness and local diversity - People who never travelled might mock the tales, but “if a man will only go to the next state, he will find differences of speech, customs, fruits, animals; the further he goes the greater the difference. Therefore despite the fools and unbelievers, the author will continue to describe what he saw.” o There was no John Mandeville; It was fiction Columbus and the Expectation of Marvels - Columbus expected them -> his readers expected them Columbus’s Reading and Writing - Columbus was in part formed by books - In turn, he formed books - He published accounts of his voyages upon returning to Spain o Columbus’s likely Mermaids (Manatees) Moderate Skepticism and Eyewitness Veracity - “In these islands, I have so far found no human monstrosities, as expected, but on the contrary the whole population is very well formed.” (Columbus on his first voyage) Representing the Columbian Exchange - Very large and broad events The Columbian Exchange - Developments encompassing several continents over several centuries and the exchange of many things o Plants, animals, people, diseases - Afro- Eurasia to Americas: Wheat, grapevines, sugarcane, horses, cattle, swine, microbes - Americas to Afro-Eurasia: Potatoes, corn, tomatoes, beans, cacao, peanuts, tobacco, squash Ecological Imperialism - The example of clearing Land o The clearing of landscapes - Really imperialistic to bring animals, food and etc to another place Discuss with your neighbor: - How would you visually represent the Columbian Exchange? - Is it better represented in prose (Writing) or visual images? o Subjective on how you would perceive it - What are the advantages and disadvantages of prose and visual images? o Prose – You have the advantage of detail o Visual – Better at expressing certain types of details (ex. Emotion) o Visual – gives a better context September 24, 2012 th 19 century Cartoon – The type of Clothes you wear shows what kind of power you have (status) - “You see at one, that majesty is made out of the wig, the high-heeled shoes, and cloak... thus do barbers and cobblers make the gods that we worship,” – William Thackeray Early Modern Empires and Symbolic Power: The role of self-presentation and majesty – The Projection of Power - Greater trade connections brought o Greater prosperity, greater centralization - Territory and population grow, so does need to project power - Need to represent reasons why rule is legitimate o “Divine Right”  Goes back to the great chain of being - Example : Emperor Jahangir (Mughal Empire) [Lived 1569-1627, reigned 1605-1627] o Different because there were many different cultures coming together , not only was it diverse and tolerant but there was a mix of the best (Jodha- Akbar) Jahangir’s Dreams - Hugging – implies they’re allies - The very title implies that they are - Animals they are steeping on : Lion and lamb (predator and prey) - They may be allies because the “lamb” may want the “lion” to protect them - Idealization : How are you supposed to ideally teat enemies(religious tolerance) Equal or Not Equal: - Possible Yin and Yang – Symmetry of how the lion and the lamb are together - The way one is looking up and one is looking down - The one in the purple has less jewelry than the one in the white who is filled with jewels which indicated a sign of wealth Did the use of foreign symbols of power imply inferiority or dominance in relation to the foreign? Louis XIV King of France c. 1650 - Increasing turning of allegorical reference to rulers (rulers trying to assert their rule) - The sun god - King who spend the most time concerned with his appearance Commonalities of Mughal, Ming and some European Empires - All power was supposed to rest in single ruler September 26, 2012 Exam Format – Multiple Choice (indentify factual and key info, no need to emphasis date and name), names of individual leaders, empires may be useful Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II - Popularized portraiture amongst the Ottomans Maps : A different kind of Portrait - They can seen as a relation between empires - Portrait of imperial ambition - Portraits of how states saw the world itself (establishment of trade routes) - Maps can say a lot about the ways people use a place o Or how they want to use a place o World maps say something about how empire see themselves in the world and how they would want to use the world - Images : Abstract Art o Representation of neighbourhood, jack-o-lanterns on Halloween, power lines, illumination of lights Maps of the Familiar and Unfamiliar Imperial Mapmaking in the 1660s (China, Russia and France) - Made maps of their own territory - Because of technology (magnetic compasses) enabled these new territorial maps (Longitude, Latitude) - Maps of these empires reflected large voyages (searching for trade routes) - They were able to start surveying in a large complete way - French completed – 1744 - Russia completed– 1745 - China completed – 1717 iClicker Question 1 : More or Less European Influence – Chinese Emperor - Less : Many oriental styles worn by the Emperor and the robes does not show any influence to the European cultures and there are no Emeralds in his outfit - There is an implication of how sitting in his throne that gives out a radiation of “order” and gives you a thought of control - There is a lack of background (no angels and etc.) Chinese Imperial Expansion – From Ming to Qing Dynasty (1644-1760) - There was a development of scales - It showed that China and Russia had boarders who were becoming closer and closer together Russia Empire 1745 - There are Imperial ambitions regardless of expansion and they were interested in expanding their territory to the Arctic Taxation and State Power - What is necessary for a State to collect taxes? o They never had the power to collect taxes from people because they did not.. o Know the people, who they are, differentiate between people (no id cards, passports) o They were able to tax land because they could differentiate Seeing like a state: The French Cadastre - There were attempts to create map to indicate map use o Cadastre – “An official register of the quantity, value and ownership of real estate use in apportioning taxes o A cadastre map is an instrument of control which both reflects and consolidates the power of those who commission it – A tool of State Power o Taxes became to not just be on how big the land was but on how it was used - The Cadastre was also a map of imperial struggle - How did it reflect and enable imperial expansion? - The cadastre and the census were cousins o Census was very important to recognize how many people there were o These things allowed conscription to be enlisted in military services (forced mostly) - A map can reveal a lot about the mapmaker Abstract Map – Smell of Edinburgh - “Auld Reekie emits a plethora of scents and smells; some particular to Edinburgh, some ubiquitous cities.” Changing European views to the World - Waldseemuller Map (1507) o North and South America was only represented by the stripes that they had contact with o Africa is very prominent (They had a lot of contact) o The drawing of Taiwan was huge - Mercator Projection (1569) o It is a cylindrical map but if it is affixed to globe, the places would not be correct o Indications of the “equator” o There are lines through the map that they try to use to navigate  Indicated navigational interest October 1, 2012 - Vermeer c.1664 – Painted in Netherlands o This woman is measuring jewelry (has a balance in her hands) o Perhaps weighing coins o People may be interested in gold o She looks pregnant o She is ignoring not only the painting but only looking at the value of the coin o It recognizes that she has her focus on Money o Painting in background – “Last Supper” o Represents a sig shift in Europe of how they think of worldly wealth Part 1: Silver - Some scholars have written of “the silver century” beginning around 1570 o Other large producer of silver was Japan - 1570 – Silver really boomed - Mining in the Americas : Potosi o 1545 – People were first brought to Potosi and was shown the silver o 1570 – Potosi was a little larger, there were rough mining conditions (Poorly paid, bad conditions) Manila and the Ox Hide - Manila is the route to Chinese trade o Major site o Morose – Muslim group - It became the nexus where the Chinese economy made contact with the European economy China - Became the “Tome of European Moneys.” o The primary destination of silver, whose demand propelled global trade - 2 primary reasons china drove the silver trade o Silber brought twice as much gold in China as it did in Europe o The Chinese produced such good and cheap products that they had little demand for European goods  Silver was one of the only things that the Europeans could trade with them  (Firearms were an exception) - The roles of Europe and China in early global trade o At first, they took different approaches to the relationship between the state and the economy Mercantilism - The European theory linking trade and state power - State power was directly tied to wealth - It treated wealth as finite, globally fixed o One country’s gain is another’s loss o Must export greater value than is imported - Did not account for effects like inflation Chinese approach to State, Power and the Economy - Until 1567, the Chinese emperors attempted to limit private wealth and corrupting influence of wealth - After 1567, emperors still emphasized the control of private wealth and limiting moral corruption - The limiting coining silver and mining silver Part 2 : Fur - Vermeer Painting – C. 1658 o Young man and young woman; He’s a soldier (red uniform) – militiaman o The map in the background - he is interested in marrying her o The big, black hat he is wearing indicates a sign of fur trade o Reason why Fur became such a huge commodity in Europe was because beaver pelts made the finest hats, better than woll hats, kept their colour nd shpe, kept shape after getting wet, were fashionable o This man is The Little Ice Age th - Unusually cold weather in 16 c. - Europe contributed to demand for furs and inflation of prices - “The weather is bitterly cold and everyone is in furs although we are almost in July” From roughly 1580 to 1610, the price of beaver pelts in European markets: Quadrupled Goods valued at 1 livre would leave early 17 century Paris and return as beaver pelts worth how many livres?”: 200 livres In 1610, beaver felt hats in Europe were how many times more expensive than wool hats?”: Ten Chartered Companies - Garnered monopoly trading rights from states o Virginia Company (English) o Dutch East India Company o East India Company (English) October 3, 2012 - Vermeer (c.1664) o It was a window into these issues (gold, silver and etc0 The Visual Display of Quantitative Information - An exemplary case: Charles- Joseph Minard, Napoleon’s Russian Campaign 1812-1813 - What is being represented? o Thick Black line – Shows where the troops are going and the thickness indicates how many troops  These lines were based on the weather  The army was not suited for the cold Russian weather  As they get closer to Moscow, they start to dwindle and as the weather starts to drop, the numbers drop dramatically o Represents 6 types of information: geography, time, temperature, the number of troops, and the route and direction of their movement International Trade and the Development of Data Graphics - International trade was actually one of the first subjects of the complex visual display of quantitative information - William Playfair (1759 – 1823) – A Scoundrel and Innovator (Scottish) o Created graphics o Had acquaintance with Engineering (Apprentice)  Was usually accused for embezzlement  Ran off to French  Apart of French stock Market  Was accused for company collapse  Few to London and was accused for blackmail twice  Convicted for illegal scheme rel
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