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Week 8 History.docx

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William Nelson

Sacred Spaces: Religious Buildings and Early Modern Connections Monday: Protestants: Why ritually burned statues and paintings at the stake? -Tradition of hierarchy burned -Many Protestants thought that images of saints were invitations to idolatry -Their own relation to God (not through bishops, priests…) -Some went as far as John Calvin, the prominent theologian, and declared “God forbade…the making of any images representing him” -Gave children education religiously Key words that two images evoke: -First image: painted by a protestant (A protestant Dutch Reform Church, 1649) -Modest -Plain (no stain glass) -Sense of purity (simple decoration and simple color combination) -Strictness -Humility -Greater need of focusing on the priest -Focus more on spiritual needs (not many extravagant decorations) -Greater sharing -Second one: Vienna (A Baroque Catholic Church, constructed around 1700) -Sense of mystery -Elaborate (decoration) -Pews (facing the same direction-alter) -Wealth (shinny metal surfaces, elaborate statues) -Sense of heaven represented in the picture (Angels in the back…) -Both churches were charged by special power that intended to make impression upon people and overwhelm people, Justify the power (through sense of mystery) -Difference (where congregation took place and temple of God, display) -Spiritual corruption: people buy their way to heaven (statues and paintings) Luther and the protestant Reformation  Martin Luther (1483-1546): A German Monk  95 theses presented in 1517  Criticized church corruption -Sale of indulgences -Purchase of church offices  By faith alone -Salvation through faith not good works  A return to “true” Gospel teaching  Broke with Rome in 1520  He was instrumental in brining about a “Great leveling” (religious and social)  An emphasis on equality in the eyes of God  Luther wanted to remove barriers between people and god -This would become the notion of personal relationship to god  Sacraments should not be hollow acts or barriers to salvation  Luther translated the New Testament into German -People should have direct access to the world of God  Advocated “the priesthood of all believers” -No cleric should be between a person and God -Clerics do not need the education or endorsement of the Church -Anyone can learn and preach the word of God  Clerical power was massively undercut -Luther (a monk) even got married  Quickly developed a following of “Evangelicals” -Drawn to his religious message and its social implications -Believed they were in the last days of the world Calvinism  John Calvin (1509-1564) A French who settled in Geneva  Logically extended Luther principle of faith VS good works  Predestination: at creation, God had chosen those to be saved -Good works could not produce salvation 
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