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University of Toronto Scarborough

IntroductionTuesday January 08 20081204 PM Introducing the introductionIntroducing the course Understanding migration in global history three overarching to follow this semester1How has migration shaped and been shaped by global historyWorld history history of events and developments as a wholeGlobal history relates to the word globalization kind of history that follows and highlights connections of the world to reconstruct the history of the globeoGlobalization the growth proliferation and thickening or quite specificand often very ordinarytypes of connections between various regions of the earth Donna GabacciaProcess of globalization goes back further than the 1990sMigration has been a key element of globalization along with other elementsoOther elements Long distant trade expanding empires 2Why how and where in the world have people movedGeographic patterns of migration that have emerged over the past 600 yearsVoyage of Ferdinand Magellan and crew were first to navigate the globe3 areas of migrationsoTransAtlantic migration 15001800Mostly forced migrants slaveryoGlobal labour market18501920abolition slavery indentured servantsoEmergence of Nation states late 19th century How has migration affected those migrants their destinations and their homelandsMigration has been very personal to the individual migrants Thinking Globally about MigrationThursday January 10 20081214 PM IntroductionoThere is an image of a migrant being a hero of the pastSometimes also seen as a downtrodden European personModels of Migration Why MigrateoAre humans a migratory speciesoPush and pull factorsoMigration in a post1500 capitalist contextIn most recent years is an economic modelsReflects the spread of a capitalist economyDeveloped in Europe and spreading out to the rest of the worldWorld system theory of globalization developed by WallersteenThis theory puts Europe in the center of the world system of capitalism and then spread to the worldThe theory ignores economic developed that happens independently in other parts of the globeCauses non Europeans to push back help to shape what globalization looks likeIt has its limits and pointsThe theory is good for why people move in the first era and area of migrationUnder this theory from 1400 the spread through the Atlantic basin Capitalism is the production of commodities to make a profitCapitalism in the age of merchants Medieval Ages to13001800European states like Portugal Spain Netherlands and England established footholds Africa and Indian subcontinentsBuilding empires in these landsBefore 1500 western Europe was in the process of becoming capitalistIn the early middle ages Europe was under serfdomBegan to fall by 1500System of free wage labour was the new wayThis was an essential part of capitalismThe crops produced were worked by serfsMerchants in England made a lot of money by trading sugar grown in the west indies and selling it to EuropeWage labour gave Europe a better way to invest their money b y putting it in factories where they wove wooland cloth and would sell it making a profitThe rise of Free labour was matched by the rise of unfree labour systemsFree labour thrived in large populations and places where populations were growingBut in the periphery land was abundant and labour was scarceTherefore forced labour systems was usedSince Indians were dying off due to European disease Europeans went to Africa and enslaved AfricansThis was the biggest slave trade in historyOversea migration happens at the instigation of capitalIn this model the main type of migrant is the labour migrantSlavery and indentured servitude and apprenticeshipAge of industrial capitalism late 19th century to present oMerchant Center and capitalismperipheryHow migrateoNetwork of migrationKey wordsoCrosscommunity migrationoPushpull factorsoVoluntary and involuntary or coerced migrantsoCapitalistCategories of MigrationoHomecommunity migrationAnimals move from one place to another within their home communityWhen people do it leaving their home family and living with another personVery commonVirtually common for humans to reproduceoColonizationAnimals leave one community to establish a new one looking like the old oneBees do this leaving the hive and making a new oneCalled Hiving offHumans colonize when moving in groups in occupied or unoccupied and making a new community looking like the old oneoWholecommunity migrationEveryone in the community all leaves on seasonal basisGeese do this heading south in the winterNot too common with humanIn 17th century many Indian groups would stay in their habitat throughout the year and move to sea shore in summeroCrosscommunity migrationCalling it just migration
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