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Lecture 2

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Jeanine Evangelista

May 15 , 2013 HISA04H3-Y Themes in World History I Lecture 2- Rivers: Irrigation and the Beginning of Civilization  Start with beginning of agriculture  Around 10 000 BCE humans shifted from hunter society to agricultural society  Agriculture was invented independently in countries around the world o Americas: corn o Mesopotamia: wheat  Agriculture often developed near valleys of rivers  Mesopotamia included the rivers Tigris river and Euphrates river, Egypt included the Nile river o Entire region is called THE FERTILE CRESCENT  Invention of agriculture: o Specific devices invented to aid farming  Hydrological technology: using water 1.) Humans adapted to the river which were near where they were living, and also adapted the river according to their need 2.) Consequences of irrigated agriculture and how it led to the development of the first cities  for civilization to rise you need to have a surplus of food  after invention of agriculture, long distance trading was also invented Lecture Outline  Hunter- Gather to Agricultural Societies  A Tale of Two Rivers: Mesopotamia and Egypt Paleolithic Hunter- Gatherers  Paleolithic -> year within which the people lived  About 300,000 year ago to 10,000 years ago  They were nomadic because o They lived off land and in order to survive they had to follow animals which they hunted and move after food in the area had decreased  Woman and children stay at base camp and gather edible food, and men go hunting o Mean an woman contributed to food gathering  30-50 people per group  cave of chauvet 31,000 BCE -> located south west of France  meat was highly prized, at the same time plants were more reliable  looked for areas with water(animals will settle there too) and good view when choosing to settle in a place  cave of Lascaux 15,000BCE  Chauvet had more real life drawings than Lascaux why? May 15 , 2013 o The site of chauvet is an exceptional natural rock bridge o Animals twice an year during their migration would have used this bridge and as a result of that they humans in this cave can witness it and reproduce it in the cave o Question: Were these early humans the hunter or the hunted ?  They were scavengers, eat the leftovers after the animals had passed The Fertile Crescent  The fertile crescent consisted of modern day Egypt up to meditteraean, then Tokyo and then down again  Fertile crescent: after the ice age left ideal conditions for animals and plants to survive o Cereal grains such as wheat and barley could not be eaten raw  Can be cooked in soup  Early human groups naturally gathered habits  Cereals can be stories longer o Can settle down in one plant longer  Then forced to domesticate animals  Led to invention of agriculture  This invention is often termed as a revolution  However, it is more of a transition than revolution  Negative aspects: o Lack of certain treatments o Depend on one thing for food Transition toward agriculture and its consequences on gender roles Circa 10,000 BCE  women probably forced the change which led to agriculture o knew rains and its roles ***Margret Thatcher piece***  plow: agricultural development tended to sideline women and the societies tend to be patriotic  in hunter-gatherer society don’t want to have kids because can become a liability  in agricultural society want to have a lot of kids because they c
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