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Lecture 3

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Camille Begin

HISA04 – World History I Lecture 3 Mare Nostrum – The Mediterranean and the Roman Empire - Latin – “old sea” (mare nostrum) - European culture – heavily influenced by Roman Culture Fernand Braudel - Author - Pioneer of history of Mediterranean Sea - Framework – developed a layered approach to history o 1. Very long-term, geological time; Longue Durée – looked at the geography, climate, agricultural systems, food , diet, culture around the sea/ocean o 2. Long-term political and cultural trends- ex. Roman Empire and cultural influences, ex. spreading of Christianity and Islam o 3. Events – history of kings, battles Founding of Rome – 753 BCE - Founded in the 8 century - Originally – it was small city states ruled by a single king - 6 century – monarchy ended - Started as an impoverished city state, turned into an imperial state - Legend/Myth o Aeneas – from city of Troy, he came from Italy and was said to have founded Rome o Romulus and Remus – brothers, raised by she-wolf, founders of Rome, 753 BCE - Etruscans th o 8-5 century BCE, Italy was dominated by Etruscans o Many were merchants o Drew large volumes of trade to the city - Advantage of Rome – Rome had easy access to the sea through the Tiber River, and had protection from invasion - Rome – plains were drained and sewage system developed - 509 BCE – Romans got rid of King – replaced monarchy with aristocratic republic o Republic – form of government with individual representation  Leaders are elected  Need a constitution The Roman Republic – 509 BCE - Consuls - one year terms, elected by Senate - Senate – composed of patricians - Patricians – noble and wealthy families in Rome - Forum – civic centre filled with public buildings, also with religious spaces o Politics and religion were not divided like today - Romans took pride in their system - Consuls and Senate – represented the interests of the wealthy - Plebeians – common people - 509-487 BCE – constant tension in the republic which led to compromises o Tension – between patricians and plebeians - 287 BCE – a new assembly for both groups was created, counsellors and plebeians = equal Expansion of the Republic and the Creation of the Empire nd - 2 century BCE – Rome transformed from small city states to the centre of an enormous empire - No blueprints were made for the empire; no precedents - Empire was created through a special process; a defensive process – more boundaries to protect - Italians expanded within Italian peninsula - To retain their power, the Romans gave Italians the right to trade, Roman citizenship - The Romans were successful because the republic organized its citizens into legends, giving them a strong military advantage; republic formed an infantry - Rome emerged as a dominant power - Roman empire expanded on Europe, Africa, and Asia (3 continents) – 1/9 of the earth‟s circumference o They held ¼ of humanity at the time From Republic tostmpire st - From 1 century BCE to 1 century CE – republican government was slowly destroyed, more centralized government (with Rome at the centre) was imposed - Class tension existed between large farmers and smaller farmers - Latifundia - any large ancient Roman agricultural estate that used a large number of peasant or slave labourers - Tension spread through Italy, civil war started Gaius Julius Cesar- assassinated in 44BCE - Began the process that would transform Rome from a republic to central government - Military leader - Popular in Rome, especially among the plebeians, because he conquered territory - Politicians were threatened by his popularity - 49 BCE – brought army, took Rome with army - 46 BCE – took control, once in Rome, he set himself up as a dictator o As a dictator, he did not have to consult with anyone - Expanded Roman citizenship to people living in the city states (plebeians), which led to these people accepting rules more easily o Resulted in upset among wealthy classes - Built centers to create more employment - 44 BCE – assassinated Octavian- “Augustus” in 27 BCE - Held power after Ceasar - Given title of “Augustus” in 27 BCE – „semi-God‟ o Politics and religion were interwoven - Ruled for 45 years (which was a long time compared to other reigns in civil war) - Centralized military power – achieved Cesar‟s goal - Preserved forms of government; preserved traditional forms of politics - Accumulated powers for himself and took responsibility for function/development structure - By 27 BCE, Rome was an empire for its 2 century - Slow evolution Imperial policies - Democracy, strong armies - Octavian dreamed of „Pax Romana‟ (Roman peace), which lasted for 250 years - Pax Romana helped facilitate trade in the Mediterranean Sea and also with the Indian Ocean through the Eastern part of the empire - Led to calling the Mediterranean Sea „mare nostrum‟ - Romans integrated the empire by building networks of communication and transportation - Built roads that exist today - Roads had deep bed, with edges and curves, which provided drainage - Roads were 20-26 feet wide - Stations were set up for animal rest - Also built aqueducts – roads for water, to get water to where there wasn‟t any, brought water to cities - Romans were full of pride - By building networks, Romans expressed pride and superiority over people they conquered - Romans decided to establish a legal system - Roman legal system o Establish
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