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Lecture 6

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Camille Begin

HISA04 – World History I Lecture 6 Maritime Expansions: China and Europe in Comparison - When the Spanish came to America, they discovered cities, government, law, politics, etc. - 1492 – dividing point o Columbus sailed o Old world and new world were combining the Americas - Before Columbus in America, at the beginning of the 15 century, Zheng He from China had a maritime endeavour Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) - China was ruled by the Ming Dynasty at the time - Mongol rule – Mongol empire o From the outskirts of eastern Europe to the end of Eurasian continent was under rule of Mongols o Empire promoted long distance trade o The silk road was possible because the land was under the same rule - Rebellions started in China by 1300s o 1368 – new dynasty was founded (Ming)  Ming tried to go back to previous norms from previous dynasty, tried to erase Mongol influences  Looked down on Mongol customs  Promoted Confucius learning  Taoism  Promoted expanding of the state  Centralizing government was in the hands of the emperor - When Ming died, grandson took over th - In the 15 century, China was looking to the past, experienced major development o China – best governed and best prospered of the major civilizations at the time - Trade – much happened under private endeavours o Ex. Near the coast of Africa - Over the next 28 years, 6 maritime expeditions were sent out from China Zheng He - Father served under Mongol rulers - 317 ships for expedition - 27,000 crew members o All types of people – physicians, astrologers, carpenters, etc. - Some ships = treasure ships - Fleet travelled through many ports in South Asia and along the Arabian peninsula - Travelled though the coast of East Africa - Carried silk, gold, other luxury items with him on trips to present to kings that he visited - Dozens of rulers would accompany him back to China for tribute - Trips abruptly ended by 1433 by order of the Emperor o According to history, the ships were ordered to be destroyed - Mission – was one of power - Voyages navigated well-known paths - Western scholars call He an explorer, trying to promote commerce and trade o Emperor wanted to display his soldiers in strange lands to show wealth and power - Ming emperor was not very interested in trade, goal was to promote internal trade, prohibition was issued to merchants to prevent foreign trade ChineseTribute System - Traditional Chinese foreign policy - Under the system, foreign rulers/representatives send/present tribute to the rulers of other lands; foreign rulers would present tribute to Chinese emperor - Acknowledges the unique status of the emperor - In return, they would be given official recognition - Ruler of their homeland and Chinese emperor would give representatives gifts and may grant them access to Chinese market or deals - Fleet was a way to bring this system to other areas Emperor Yongle (1402-1422) - Launched campaign against Cambodia, triggered a crisis - Support for expeditions fell - Interest geared towards north, rather than south - China was a self-sufficient kingdom, didn’t need to create links with other states - Found less interest as they sailed further, most goods were coming from India, Middle East European Expansion - Through voyages, Europeans able to chart waters and established global networks of exchange - World before explorations th o Ptolemy – 15 century, European view of the world  Standard view of the world in 1405  Greek writer – Europeans turned to for knowledge of world - Motives for exploration o Search for land and resources o Cash crop – crops that have high value in markets (sugar, cotton, etc.) o Desire to establish new trade routes to Asian
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