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HISA07-Lecture 2.docx

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Ancient Mediterranean History Lecture 2: Geography, Chronology and Definitions 1 • Rugged land, fertile, sea (major connecting vector b/w civilizations) • ancient: dawn of humanity up until Muslim caliphate • The Mediterranean Sea - not a Euro-centric term • Ancient Views of the Mediterranean -antiquity rivers are sources of water, irrigation, but especially transport: connected places because you had non-hostile people to trade etc. with -Greeks colonized many areas of the Med. and up to the Black Sea • Mediterranean Climate Zone -35 and 45 degrees north and south of equator (The Med. and deserts in Australia, Chile and South Africa)  These areas are all good for the cultivation of grapes; Greeks and Romans preferred wine but when they went to northern Europe (grain area) so developed a taste for beer • Med. Unity: Gerdin and Braudel -environment determines how that civilization develops (enviro. determinism) -long duree = long duration/looking at things over a long period of time -looking at longer arcs and trajectories • Med. Diversity and Connectivity: Horden and Purcell -not of unified region but bunch of region made up of micro-regions; diff’s b/w regions = prosperity by exploiting uniqueness - connection by sea allowed some areas to prosper • Biqa Valley Region -isolated by mountain on one side • Virtual Islands: David Kennedy -Jordan isolated by deserts in east, valleys north and west; Jordan had different culture than surrounding areas • Cyrenaica: a “Virtual Island” -surrounded by sea on 3 sides and deserts south (quasi-insular region) -exploited this by cult. silphion - only grows naturally in low-land places in Cyrenaica (so important it was placed on coins) Ancient Mediterranean History Lecture 2: Geography, Chronology and Definitions 2 *isolated without actually being an island (virtual island); isolated or cut off by other elements (natural or cultural) • What is the difference b/w a cult. and a civilization -civil. not the same to be a city; civil. is a type of cult. that has certain feat’s; cult.: share ethnic and social norms (a grp of people) • Canada - missionaries coming to convert Aborginals and sending records back to Europe (History begins); *history begins at diff. times in diff. places…history (recording) • archaeology: looks at material cult./phys. remains to construct history -stratigraphy; law of superposition: older mat. bottom, younger on top -relative dating…extend dates across (recording) -dendrochronology: some widths of tree are very wide, some dense - denser ones are from leaner years (less sun, less rain); larger grew in good years -tree has to be preserved and not rotten; regional dating tool -radiocarbon: has to be preserved and living • Dating the Past *AD 2013 should be written as *Before Present (Before 1950 CE; 1950 = present) th -501-600BCE = 6 century; syst. didn’t arrive till middle ages - b/f years named after event, polit. person, who was ruling; Rome dated according to foundat. of city (753 BCE); Near East Seleucid when dynasty of kings of Syria and adjoining areas came to throne (311 BCE); Greece Olympiad (776 BCE) • The Stone Age -majority of human past -lower Palaeolithic may not be quizzed on: just when concerning artefacts • Early Human Migration -south and eastern Af. emigration : homo erectus made it all the way to the pacific in China -Neanderthals and then modern humans emigra
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