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Lecture 3

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Ancient Mediterranean History Lecture 3: Mesopotamia and the Bronze Age (6000-1200 BCE) 1 • Mesopotamia: between two rivers (Tigris and Euphrates) -overlaps to Zagros mountains to mountains of Caucases and into Anatolia (Syria, Iraq, Turkey) *Each culture named after a type site: site where a cult. was first excavated, studied, interp., and published • Hassuna Culture *know the maps* -dry farming: no irrigation - (tech’s mentioned in book) depending on nat. rainfall for water • Tell Hassuna -retaining water, following contour lines; granaries, sickles, areas for pounding grain and ovens for cooking bread *adobe: mud mixed with straw *sources: arch., homes, pottery assemblage (shapes, arrangement, size), figurines • Hassuna Ware -pottery is valuable b/c: have pictures on them a/b culture, pot-shards are indestructible: don’t rot, break into smaller pieces but still exist, resistant to most weathering; method of prod./pictures tell you about how “civilized” cult. was, pott. styles change more quickly than other mediums-can look at changes across generations, tells about life in terms of what they were used for • Halaf Culture -Halaf and Hassuna are diff. cult. grps rather than diff. adapts to enviro. through enviro.; not climate or natural things that prod. the cult. -Tholoi: round/circular structures • Halaf Ware -Many different colours • Ubaid Culture -religion used to unify pop. and legitimize. soc. differentiation -first “kings” were heads of relig. instit’s • Irrigated Agriculture Ancient Mediterranean History Lecture 3: Mesopotamia and the Bronze Age (6000-1200 BCE) 2 -salt from evap. can be toxic to plants trying to be grown so fields were flooded, salt flushed way b/f next crop • City-State -tutelary deity: god/goddess protectorate/representative of the city ; not just the city includes inter-land/rurual territory: territory the city controls up until it bumps to the next political unit/city- state (agric. land or minor satellites [vill
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