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Lecture 5

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Ancient Mediterranean History Lecture 5: The Civilizations of Eastern Mediterranean 1 • Ahmose Reunifies Egypt -(reunified north and south by expelling Hyskos in North) • Queen/King Hatshepsut -after death of Thumose II - took control of country; coregency (two monarchs at one time) -ruled as king Hatshepsut -depicted as male: still acknowledging gender with minimal breast depiction -renewed mining activities -renewal of trade and diplomatic in Punt; had this expedition memorialized on temple (in her words her greatest achievement); expedition - brought back giraffes and animals Egyptians would not have been exposed too (similar to scientific expedition) *Valley of the Kings is just opposite the a mountain; funerary complex is modelled a/f the king who esatb. the kingdom of Egypt • Hatshepsut and Thutmose III -any instance of her image or name was ordered by Thut. III was chiselled off walls; if name and image gone, lessens the chance into afterlife -might be bitter for having to share power, but no indication of them in conflict; or another woman might have stood a chance of succession so might have wanted to eliminate this chance • The Conquest of Nubia -Tutankhamon (18 dynasty); had to recognize Egypt authority with raised hand • Amenhotep IV/Akhenaton -Akenotheist? - believed other gods existed but worshipped only one *important for arch. b/c entire land is like a time capsule after having been occupied for one generation and then abandoned • The Aton Revolution -Aton worship, pharaoh and fam. served as intermediaries b/w god and man -worship happened in open court yard (open to the sun) • Amarna letters -traded literature not just admin. things • Akhenaton Depicted (and fam. diff. f/ normal Egypt depictions) - hips, thighs, belly, shape of head diff. • Tutankhamon -changes his name and the religion back to what it was before; priestholds and temples back -Egypt priesthold and temples controlled vast amounts of land could out-“wealth” pharaohs; when Akenaton ruled with his Aton worship, he cut off priest livelihood • Egyptian-Hittite Peace Treaty (world’s earliest) • Ebla as a Port of Trade
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