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Lecture 04

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Katherine Blouin

Lecture 04 CLAB06H3 Tuesday, January 29, 2013 Italy and the Empire in the 3 – 2 ndcent. BC Outline 1. Rome’s Italian Expansion 2. Rome’s Mediterranean Expansion a. The Punic Wars b. Roman involvement in the Eastern Mediterranean 3. The Consequences a. Institutions and Territorial Management b. Society and Economy 1. Rome’s Italian Expansion Reminder… th - 4 cent. BC: o Veii o Latium o N Campania o Samnium 290 – 260 BC: Northern + Central + Southern Italy - Attacked some of its ships, resulted Rome to reciprocate Wars against Pyrrhus (281 – 272 BC) - 3 battles: Rome vs. Pyrrhus and allied cities - Upcoming = Rome’s victory (275) o Pyrrhic victory - 273 – 272: Capture of Tarentum o Sold the city o Survived the wars, killed in a street fight Consequences? - Many cities submitted to Rome (Tarentum) - Creation of several new colonies - More contact between the Romans and the Greek world/culture o More results within Roman culture/faith - First contacts with Carthaginians - Growth of Rome = water supply issues o 312: Aqua Appia o 272: Anio Vetus - Growth of Roman territory o Via Appia How did Rome manage the conquered territories and peoples? - By founding colonies - By enslaving the conquered peoples - By plundering the vanquished settlements - By giving civic rights to the vanquished people - By burning everything down and starting anew a Settlements: 3 main types A. Municipia o Municipia o Municipia sina suffragio B. Allies C. Colonies A. Municipia o Municipia o Municipia sina suffragio B. Allies C. Colonies - Roman - Latin Rights = No taxes nor tribute Duties = Military effort + submission to Rome A. Municipia - Incorporated into the Roman State o Roman territory o Roman citizens - Local institutions maintained - No independent foreign or military policy - I.e. Veii Municipia sine suffragio - Further away from Rome - Citizens but no right to vote (sine suffragio) - Local institutions maintained - No independent foreign or military policy - I.e. Capua B. Allies (Socii) - Submitted cities - Some independence - Not incorporated into Roman State - Socii nominis Latini (“allies of Latin name”) o Right to intermarriage o Right of ownership of land o Right of migration - I.e. Tarentum (272 BC) C. Roman colonies - Cities-states under Rome’s sole control - Strategic locations - 2 types o Roman colonies: Roman citizens (tribes) o Latin colonies: Latin status - I.e. Córdoba (169 BC) How to create a colony: - 3 men (triumviri) = leaders - A site (new or not) o Fortified settlement o Allocated plots (cadastres) - Religious inaugurating rites - Colonists and local institutions 2. Rome’s Mediterranean Expansion 2 Main Developments - The Punic Wars - Involvement in the Eastern Mediterranean A. The Punic Wars - 3 Wars against Carthage o 264 – 241 BC o 218 – 201 BC o 149 – 146 BC - *Sources = Pro Roman/anti-Carthaginia Where was Carthage located? Europe, North Africa and West Asia Carthage - Most prosperous Phoenician colony - Best fleet of the Mediterranean - Mediterranean Empire: o North Africa o West Sicily o Sardinia o Balearic Islands o Spain 1 Punic War - 264 – 241 BC - Around 270: Mamertines  Carthage - Campanian mercenaries vs. Syracuse Army (Hiero) o Defeated -  X – Mamertines  Rome o (Campanians mercenaries)  Carthaginian garrison expelled, Romans enter Syracuse  Carthage + Hiero retaliate - Pretext: Straits of Messina - 289 BC, death of Agathocles of Syracuse - 263: More intensive warfare - 262: Sack of Agrigentum by the Romans o Relative status quo o Hamilcar Barca named commander in Sicily o Rome: Builds a competitive fleet - 256: Roman troops in North Africa o Capture of Tunis o 1 consul captures (Regulus) - 241: Peace treaty (Hamilcar) Aftermaths - Carthaginians leave Sicily - Large indemnity paid to Rome - Carthage: $ problems  Mercenaries’ revolts in North Africa + Sardinia  Roman intervention  Carthage abandons Sardinia 2nd Punic War - 218 – 201 BC - Pretext: Spain - Roman sources: Siege of Saguntum + incursions beyond the Ebro river 218 BC - Hannibal: Walks towards Italy o Southern France o Alps o Unites with Gauls o Dec 218:  Romans defeated (Trebia river) 217 – 212 BC - Roman defeats: o Lake Trasimene o Cannae
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