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Lecture 06

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Katherine Blouin

Lecture 06 HISB11H3/CLAB06H3 Feb 12, 2013 The Late Republic: 1 cent. BC Republic - Collegial power = against monarchy o Voting assemblies o Magistracies o Senate  Power to the elite - 4 cent: Formative period: wars in Italy o Magistracies o End of the Struggle of the order o New mixed elite rd nd - 3 – 2 cent: Senate’s supremacy o Conquests  Few very wealthy, many poor  Optimates  Populares (Equestrians, “people”) st 1 century: End of the Republic - Political powers of military commanders + Power of the senate (Optimates) Principate: - Marius - Sulla - Pompey - Julius Caesar Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus 133: Tribune of the plebs - Rogatio Sempronia o Limited possession of the Ager publicus o Recovered land for the poor + inalienable o College of 3 members to implement the law (= recover land) Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus nd Opposition of a tribune  Tribune deposed + law passed  Ask for a 2 tribunate  ? Gaius Sempronius Gracchus 123: Tribune of the Plebs 1) Amended Rogatio Sempronia 2) Lex Sempronia frumentaria - 40l/month of wealth for each Roman citizen living in Rome 3) Laws in favor of the equestrian order (juries) Consequences? - Violent senatorial opposition - 122: Reelected tribune - 121: Not reelected - 121: Killed with 3000 partisans Gracchian Crisis st - 1 violent clashes between Roman citizens - Creation of the plebes frumentaria 1. Marius (157-86 BC) - Born ~157 BC in Arpinum - Equestrian family - Local elite (novus homo – new man) - Backed by the Metelli Army Reform (Marius?) - Calls for volunteers o Even poorest ones o Persona promises of rewards  Call to join army to make a living/protect country Marius’ Wars Outside Italy a. War with Jugurtha (112-105 BC) - Dynastic struggle between Jurgurtha and Adherbal - 116 BC: o A seeks Rome’s help o Rome: Settlement (West = Jugurtha; East = Adherbal) - 112: o J invades A’s territory and kills him - 109 – 108: Quintus Caecilius Metellus commander - 107: Marius (consul) commander - 105: End of the war (Sulla) o Part of J’s territory to King Bocchus of Mauretania o J captured + paraded in Rome b. Campaigns against the Cimbri and Teutones (113-100 BC) - 113-105: Roman defeats in the Rhone valley - 104-100: Marius elected consul o Elected 5 years in a row  Outcome is the 1 emperor o Command in Gaul - 102: X Teutones - 101: X Cimbri o 2 Triumphs + Need to reward veterans Agrarian Bill (100 BC) - Lucius Apuleius Saturninus = tribune of the plebs o Settlements for veterans + citizens (Cisalpine Gaul) o Colonies + Roman citizenship to settlers (including allies) in Greece + Sicily o Oath of the senators: 5 days to respect the law - Violence (Marius’ veterans)  law passed o Quintus Metellus in exile 99 BC - Saturninus tribune again - Wants to impose Gaius Servilius Glaucia as consul o Saturninus has other candidate killed  Senate: “ultimate decree”  S + G captured by Marius and lynched by the mob in the Curia Saturninus’ tribunates - Direct use of violence in political life of Rome o Use of veterans as personal army Post Saturninus - 99: Quintus Metellus recalled from exile Social Wars The right of citizenship of allies 91 BC - Livius Drusus tribune of the plebs - Law proposal o Juries all senators but 300 formed equites o Public land to poor citizens o Full Roman citizenship to all Latins + Italians  NO! DRUSUS killed Social Wars (91-87 BC) st Italy’s 1 full-scale civil war - Many allies in Italy against Rome o Capital in Corfinium (Italica) - 90: Citizenship grants to all loyal allies - 89: Second wave of grants Consequences - More citizens o More people started using Latin  Abide Roman law - Wide diffusion of Roman law - Spread of Latin language and culture - Enormous clienteles - New elite In which tribes shall we put these new citizens? 88 BC: Publius Sulpicius Rufus tribune of the plebs  Redistribute the new citizens in existing tribes  Opposition of the consuls (Pompeius Rufus + Sulla) Marius… the return! - Condition: Replace Sulla as commander against Mithridates (king of Pontus)  Sulpicius’ law
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