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Lecture 6

HISB11 Lecture 6.docx

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Katherine Blouin

HISB11 Lecture 6 14/02/2012 9:04:00 AM Mapping question Idenitify major regions, cities and others mentioned in class Rome was on the shore of the river (tiger river) Multiple choice, tf, matching (names of important political figures), short answer, some dates (main events), an essay question (choice btwn 2 questions understanding of the historical evolution of rome with reference to one primary source discussed within class) 13-15 Feb: Lupercalia - She-wolf - in Acardia, involving mostly shepherds - many noble youths would run through the city naked and women will stand in their way with their hands out hoping to be struck (sign of fertility). The Late Republic. 1 Century B.C. th - Rome was a monarchy in the 6 century - 5thto 1 C. B.C. were republic Collegial power was formed to be against the monarchy 1 century: end of the republic - rise of military commanders (populares) - whereas the senate decreases in power (optimates) Importance - Marius, Sulla, Pompey, Julius Cesaer Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus (133: Tribune of the plebs) nd - Gracchus brother asked for a 2 tribunate, and you couldn‟t do so because you had to wait 10 years. This greatly offended the political groups and therefore he was killed Lex Sempronia fumentaria - he passed laws that allowed citizens to buy a certain amount of wheat per month/year for a subsidized price - ppl loved him for doing these things Gracchuab Crisis - first time violent clashes were seen between Roman citizens - creation of plebs frumentaria 1. Marius (157-86 B.C.) - born in Arpinum - Equestrian family - Local elite (novus homo) - Backed by the Metelli - Army Reform o Calls for volunteers  Even poorest ones  Personal promises of rewards  Rich to poor  Non permanent to professional (no longer were farmers going off to the war, but instead they had individuals who were in the army as a profession)  From national to personal (chief) - Marius‟ Wars outside Italy a. War with Jugurtha (112-105 BC)  Dynastic struggle btwn brothers Jugurtha (adopted) and Adherbal  116 BC: o Adherbal seeked Rome‟s help o Rome: Settlement ( West= J, East= A)  Jugurtha struck back  109-108: Quintus Caecilius Metellus not friends with Marius anymore  107: Marius (consul) wins over Jugurtha  105: End of the war (Sulla) o Part of j‟s territory to King Bocchus of Mauretania o J captured + paraded in Rome b. Campaigns against the Cimbri and Teutone  113-105: roman defeats in the Rhone Valley  104-100: Marius elected consul (wasn‟t allowed to be elected consul this many times, but Marius was allowed for 6 times. Shows that the council was breaking down) o command in Gaul  102: X Teutones  101: X Cimbri two triumphs, and promised to reward his soldiers - Agrarian Bill (100 BC) - Lucius Apuleius Saturninus= tribune of the plebs  settlements for veterans + citizens (Cisalpine Gaul, Greece, Sicily) 99 BC - Saturninus tribune again - wants to impose Gaius Servilius Glaucia as consul saturninus has other candidate killed senate: „ultimate decree‟ S + G captured by Marius and lynched by the mob in the Curia Saturninus‟ Tribunates - direct use of violence in political life of Rome  veterans (personal army) Post Saturninus - Metellus exile - Marius leaves for a little while 2. Social Wars - what was at stake? Social allies and citizenship 91 BC - Livius Drusus tribune of the plebs - Law proposal  juries all senators but 300 former equites  public land to poor citizens  full Roman citizenship to all Latins + Italians  this was opposed and Drusus was killed - this lead to the social wards (91-87 BC) - Italy‟s first full scale civil war - many allies in Italy against Rome 90: citizenship grants to all loyal families Consequences - more citizens - wide diffusion of Roman law - spread of Latin language and culture - enormous clienteles - new elit
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