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Lecture 10

HISB11 Lecture 10.docx

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Department
History
Course
HISB11H3
Professor
Katherine Blouin
Semester
Winter

Description
HISB11 Lecture Mar. 13. 2012 13/03/2012 8:15:00 AM Outline 1. from Octavian to Augustus (30 BC – 14 AD) 2. The Julio- Claudians and the Flavians (14 - 96 AD) 3. Life and Society in the Empire (textbook) 1. From Octavian to Augustus (30 BC – 14 AD)  a. Octavian and the Republic  b. Military reforms  c. provincial and foreign policies  d. urbanism  e. literature How did Augustus manage to keep the power for so long?  Use of traditional Republican institutions  Concentration of all Republican powers to one man The First Years  30 BC: Still rules as triumvir  31-23 BC: re-elected as consul every year  28 BC: Agrippa and him coequal consuls  Jan. 27 BC: Hands back all his authority to the Roman people but…  It was staged, b/c ppl loved him so much that he knew they wouldn‟t want him to leave. He was begged to retain some powers The First Settlement (27 BC) Octavian  Consul of Spain, Gaul, Cilicia, Cyprus, Syria, Egypt for 10 years o Through Legati  Named Augustus, meaning “revered”/sacred shows the power and admiration that he had  restoration of the Republic 23 BC  Augustus resigns consulship again, but.. o Keeps  Provinces  Imperium supreme power in social and military powers (highest power a magistrate in Rome can hold) o Gains  Imperium maius  Tribunicia potestas power of the tribune  Consul + tribune of plebs (usually can‟t get both, but he did) Other „Honors‟  19 BC: Consul insigna  12 BC: Pontifex maximus died, then Octavian took over (he became chief of the Roman religion)  2 BC: Pater patriae Senate: Augustus made it More Exclusive  From 1000 to 600 members (sulla)  Entry condition: quaestor (sulla)  Fortune: 400,000 to 1,000,000 sesterces  Cursus honorum respected o Augustus‟ control How did Augustus retain effective power?  Through his influence unauthoritative leadership “In my sitxth and seventh consulship (28-27 BC), after I had extinguished civil wars, and at a time when with universal consent I was in complete control of affairs, I transferred the republic from my power to the dominion of the senate and people of Rome… After this time I excelled all in influence (auctoritas), although I possessed no more official power (potestas) than others who were my colleagues in the several magistracies”  Augustus, Res Gestae 34 Some important Latin Words…  New cognomen (family name) taken by Octavian Augustus  Unofficial influence Auctoritas  Originally a title for successful military commanders. From Augustus‟ time it was used of the „emperor‟ and from the Flavians (68 on) imperator  Imperium  Princeps B. Military Reforms  Size + rewards o From 60-70 to 26 legions = at least 300,000 men discharged o Land and $ for veterans  Control + allegiance o Almost all in imperial provinces o Rise of centurions‟ pay idea that if you pay more, they‟ll be more loyal to you o Had to swear Oath in the name of Augustus + his family o Praetorian guard (personal bodyguard of the emperors) + vigils in Rome (to ensure public order)  6 AD: Aerarium militare= fund for veterans o tax on inheritance + sales money went to the military and paid those in it  13 AD: Professionalization of the army o volunteer citizens o military service = 20 years and + o bounty: $, land C. Provincial + Foreign Policies  Doubled Empire‟s size: Augustean Empire  2 types of provinces o senatorial o imperial Senatorial Pronvinces  Stable ones  Not a lot of soldiers  Governed by proconsuls o Former consuls or praetors o Ex: Africa, Bithynia and Pontus, Macedonia Imperial Provinces  Instable + new ones  Bulk of the soldiers  Governed by legati Augusti pro praetor equestrian o For
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