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Lecture 9

HISB11 Lecture 9.docx

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Katherine Blouin

HISB11 Week 9 06/03/2012 9:13:00 AM From Caesar to Augustus Outline 1. from the death of Crassus to the death of Caesar (53-44 BC) 2. The year after Caesar’s Death (44-32 BC) 3. The second triumvirate and its aftermaths (43-30 BC) 4. Octavian-Augustus’ Reign (30 BC-14 AD) - Crassus was campaigning in Parthias (the Persians of the Romans) 52 BC Pompey sole consul - Law: 5 years btwn consulship/ praetorship and governship of a province to prevent people from abusing power (taking all the money and as well for corrupted consuls to be prosecuted once they are out of consulship power). - usually two consuls at a time, but after Crassus’ death  chaos, so made Pompey sole consul Caesar after Gaul - 50:  Caesar= high risks of prosecutions o Wants to switch directly from governship to consulship  Pompey avoids the matter, then disagrees - Caesar didn’t like the new law because he would have been prosecuted - optimates (supported Pompey) vs the populares (supported Caesar) - 50-49: More search for compromises  Senate always denied Caesar’s intentions. They wanted to minimize Caesar’s power  senate (cato): senatus consultus ultimatus made to decrease Caesar’s power because he was a threat to the republic. Supports of Caesar who had political power from Caesar was basically told to leave the city/stripped of power, or be killed  tribune (cassius + mark Anthony) have to flee from Rome - Jan. 49: Caesar crosses the Rubicon River  while crossing the Rubicon, Caesar says “Alea jacta est” (the point of no return, the dices are cast)  Rubicon was river in northern Italy, the limit of the province and Italy itself. Rule was no military commander was allowed to cross with their army. Caesar knew the rule, and by crossing it he stated that he will resist declaration of civil war against pompey  He declared that he would not kill Roman citizens and would be merciful - Civil War (49-45)  Caesar (populares) vs. Pompey (optimates)  But Pompey left Rome (not really flee). He went to his other supporters from other places where he campaigned, and gathered his supporters to come back at Caesar  C came to Rome via Rubicon, roles reversed, Pompey’s leave makes Caesar seem more like a saviour  C went to Spain  C wont the battle with P and P fled to Egypt  Egypt at the time was a Macedonian kingdom  P wanted to go to Egypt to gather supporters but he was decapitalized instead. The young king realized that P was on the losing side and didn’t want to against C, so killed P when he arrived at the shore of northern Egypt  Remaining members of P’s army (generals), left for north African including his two sons where they had support.  Caesar came to Alexandria and was given Pompey’s head, but was upset  P although is a political enemy of C, but he was a Roman elite, and was valued in Roman eye’s. So it was seen as barbaric and dishonouring. C kicked the young king out, and C had an intimate th relationship with the young king’s sister (Cleopatra the 7 ).  Had a son with C, named Caesarean. C was involved with the dynastic quarrels of this Egyptian/Macedonian reign  C won the battle of Zela and said Veni Vidi Vici I came, I saw, I conquered - “Clementia” - one of these people was Cicero - 47-46 BC and after Caesar arrives in Africa and defeated Pompey’s forces. Cato commited suicide - C followed the rest who fled to Spain and defeated everyone else (battle of Thapsus and Munda) -47-45: War against the Pompeians  46: Dictator for 10 years + 4 triumphs (Gaul, Egypt, Pontus, Africa)  C was a dictator for many years and each time it increases in number of years becoming more like a king - C’s dictatorship (49-44)  45: Back in Rome (triumph)  44: perpetual dictator (practically of all of Rome) o command against Parthia - The end  feb 14, 44: perpetual dictator  feb 15, 44: C refuses the diadem that was offered to him, pisses off the optimates  mar 15, 44: last meeting of the senate before Caesar’s departure in Syria o stabbed by a group of conspirators Julius Caesar - has setup the foundations of the imperial regime victory of the populares over the optimates monarchy without the name Caesar and himself - wore royal attire (purple) - gold crown - his image on coins - fidelity oath swore by his name - his statue with those of Rome’s 7 kings (Capitole) republic was created after the last king was kicked out of Rome, republic was unhappy with Caesar creating a statue beside the 7 kings - new Romulus - safety safeguarded by oaths  C’s greatest problem was being unable to be subtle Caesar’s socio-economic reforms - debts -more land for veterns (oversea)  carthage + Corinth= colonies - rise of status for several communities (spain, Cisalpine) - Asia: taxes levied by communities - calendar the Julian calendar Egyptian calendar 2. The Year after Caesar’s death (44-43 BC) - mar 15: C’s murder - Mar 17: antony’s compromise o No action against the murderers o No reversal of caesar’s measures that favour the poorer people (was not cancelled) - Caesar’s Will  gave Roman people o Extensive property o 300 sesterces per individual o very populares measures made them love Caesar even more and support his people after he has died  Gaius Octavius (Octavian) o Sole heir of Caesar, this pissed Antony off because he was very close to C, but didn
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