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Lectue 2: Contact & Colonial Life

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S.Burgess- Whiting

HISB30 Lec 2 Sept 27, 2011 Contact and Colonial Life Pre-Euro contact America Civilizations -most North American civ’s were nomadic or agricultural (ex the mound people) -Aztecs had complex trade -pop 25-45 thousand ppl trading in the city centers -no wheel, instead used boats and animals -traders guild (pochteca) were protected by the emperor -much war in the American tribes -33-50 million American Indians pre-contact, 90% killed off by disease -Hernan Cortez arrives 1492 -Spanish invasions 1520’s, unite with American tribes seeking to rebel against the Aztecs -Incas -Spanish conquered in 1535 -32 million ppl linked through trade -20,000 feet -valleys:agriculture, hills: agriculture, highlands: manufacturing Complex Trade Routes -exemplified how American civ’s were not ignorant of the greater world around them Factors that gave rise to American exploration/ settlement -neo-europes -European empires sought lands that were similar to those in the homeland that were overcrowded, already exposed to disease -steel and technology -european domesticated animals were easily transformed to match the climates of colonial nations -Chinese had no reason to expand their empire because they were the center of trae and intellectuals (isolationists) -Arabs already had east africa, europe and asia for trade -created a blockade to the only sea route to the Indian ocean in order to control trade there (red sea) -Agricultural production made euro societies more self sustainable until the economies grew out of their borders (population expansion: longer lifespans) -Mercantilism: the state must be self sufficient -imperial economics: looking not to expand society but to exploit others (birth of capitalism) -was an incentive to explore -Advantages: British industrialization, insurance and free immigration -Disadvantages: costly expansion, balance of european powers put into question -Renaissance-Humanism: God is no longer the definition of culture, previously Church
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