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Lecture 4: The Middle Ground and the Contrasting 13 Colonies (C. 1700)

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S.Burgess- Whiting

HIS B30 Lec 4 Oct 5, 2011 The Middle Ground and Contrasting Colonies at 1700 English Colonization of America What were the motives for the settlement of the northern colonies? -Religious freedom -Reformation -rejected authority of the Pope -stressed freedom of individual conscience on matters of faith -permitted clergy to marry -the separation of church and nation state -Martin Luther 1483-1546 was a German monk -critic of the church’s wealth; control people’s consciences; lose touch with message to poor -1517 Wittenberg Fair sale of indulgences (priests would charge for a freedom of sin card kind of thing) -95 theses -importance of faith and grace alone -priests not needed to mediate relations with God, no need for indulgences -lead to Protestantism -John Calvin (15099-1564) -doctrine of predestination: certain groups and individuals are predestined to go to heaven no matter their lifestyle; however one does not know if they are predetermined so it is best to perform good behavior -behavior may reveal chances for salvation -created anxieties- pressures to live productive lives -lead to puritans -Church of England -King Henry 8th wants to divorce his wife -lead to anglicanism Plymouth -Thomas Weston -english merchants. patient -18 families (102) -the mayflower, 1608 -the Mayflower compact -pilgrims -Anne Hutchinson -convicted heresy -prominent female merchant which questions the church’s authority Mariland -George Calvert 1st Lord Baltimore -Cecilius Calvert 2nd Lord Baltimore, given land grants by the catholic church -Leonard Calvert (bro and governor) -vision was to create a refuge for catholics in Britain -March 1634- Arc and Dove -200-300 colonists -Befriended natives -Act concerning religion 1649, following protestants being allowed to settle the area as well -Land distribution -1635 house delegates -head-right system adopted in 1640’s, similar to that in Virginia Massachusetts Bay (New England) -1628 Mass. Bay Co. -1630 migration -”Great Fleet” -11 ships- 700 passengers -Gov. John Winthrop
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