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FDR and the New Deal.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Christine Berkowitz

FDR and the New Deal Wednesday, March 06, 2013 11:59 AM Key terms; Schecter vs United States, Francis Townsend, Father Charles Coughlin, Huey Long, Share the Wealth Plan, CIO, Communism and the Flint Sitdown Strike, Scottsboro Boys First New Deal  During Hoover, there was the belief that there wasn't enough done  Roosevelt, Democract, was president from 1933 - 1945  Came into power on the platform of relief, recovery, and reform Was a nice connection between the northern democrats and the southern   Suffered from Polio o Tried to hide it  Activist kind of politician o As governor of NY, opened up $21mil to provide direct relief to NY o First ever moment of actually providing social assitance kind of relief  Pledged his alliegance to the forgotten man at the bottom of the pyramid  Offered few detail of his plan, but it was dubbed the 'New Deal'  Guiding Ideas in the New Deal Experimentation o Seek capitalist solutions - no desire to impose socialism o Under-consumption and overproduction - must strike balance o Power of corporations counterbalanced by gov't and by organisation among workers and small producers o Gov't should moderate imbalance of wealth o Growing belief in Keynesian economics - deficit spending. If gov't spends money, the people can spend it in turn, thus generating economic growth  'The First Hundred Days' o 'Honeymoon' period of the presidency when the president gats the most done  For Roosevelt, this meant; o Emergency Bankling Act  Closed all banks for 4 days and only allowed stable banks to open  Goal was to restore confidence in the banks o Federal Deposit Insurance Company (FDIC)  If you deposit your money, they're insured up to a certain amount o Federal Securities Act - Securities and Exchange commission o Federal Emergency Relief Act (FERA)  $500mil given to the states to put into relief funds o Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) o Agricultural Adjustment ACT (AAA)  Raising the crop prices by eliminating excess surplus  Helping to eliminate surplus from the market and keep prices stable o National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) o National Recovery Administration (NRA)  Designed to stimulate production  Similar to the War industry board  Gov't getting involved in the stimulation of production  Allowing productors to get together to discuss wages and price levels  Also seeing a guarentee to employees a reight to representation and a right to unionize o Public Works Administration (PWA) o Civil Conservation Corps (CCC)  Make work projects  Puts them into developing infrastructure, planting trees  Direct aid to individuals  Despite this, the economy was still to rebound  The AAA didn't really work  NRA also didn't produce desired results  Different groups began complaining needs weren't met o Consumers say prices too high o Small business say they're left out o Labour leaders feel like nothing is happening o Big business hates gov't intervention  Challenges to the New Deal o Supreme Court struck down NIRA/NRA in Schechter v US  Knocked as unconstitutional  Unanimous vote  It infringed on the separation of power  Congress has sole power to legislate and cannot give that power to anyone else  Can't let the president determine codes of fair conduct o Left wing gains support in this period o Seeing that capitalism doesn't support people the way it should  Father Charles Coughlin hates everyone but uses radio to deliver his sermons effectively o Calls for federal ownership of banks and protection of human rights Huey Long  o Governor f
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