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HISB31H3 (96)
Lecture 6

Lecture 6

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Neville Panthaki

JAN 21 Spanish-American War 1898 • Cuban revolution vs. Spain • Started as a civil war (against the Spanish rule in cuba) • “The Maine” controversy- to get US congress to get involved • Congress did not pay attention (they were not sure how the ship was sunk) • There was a campaign in the New York Journal (by Hearst) and the World (by Pulitzer) • They were told to advocate for US favour in entering the war • They replied that there wasn’t really a matter there and that there wasn’t a story there • The government said “you furnish the pictures, I’ll furnish the war” • This meant that they wanted the media to sway and put pressure on congress to allow funds • Both journalists did it • For a whole month, they published stories and achieved the goal • Pulitzer made “remember the maine, to hell with spain” • This allowed the American entry into war • In democratic states, the government couldn’t be held accountable unless it was backed by public opinion • Media became a monopoly of government • US asked the Spanish to ceasefire • After even an ultimatum, the US invades and won Cuba within 4 months with 460 dead • Theodore Roosevelt took part in the war and was the governor of New York • At the end, there was no annexation of cuba • They wanted compensation, taken from spain for $400 million • They took from spain, Puerto Rico and Guam (spread of American power of both oceans) • From an internal matter between Cuba and Spain, it resulted in American-Spanish war • The Americans looked to another Spanish holding: Philippines • They sailed into Manila using the argument that they were asserting control and freeing Philipines • They declared Philippines as a colony of the US • President Mckinley: Occupation • Aguinaldo started a 3 year long guerrilla against the US • At the end, the Philippines were secure as an American colony • The Americans were interested in China (previously controlled by British) • Secretary State John Hay tried to negotiate the open door (idea that the stronger economy had the right to trade and extract resources and that the receiving nation could not be resisted) with china • US wanted to avoid conflict so Hay wanted to negotiate with the British in Hong Kong • A rebellion began against Britain in China called The Rebellion of the Fists of Righteous Harmony (the Boxer Rebellion) vs. Imperialism • The Chinese lost • Ch’ing Empress allows rebellion • Allied control China (1900) • The message was that there should be unity Panama Canal: • The one thing that makes US imperialism a problem was that it was isolated • Ships had to go around South America to get the other side (very inefficien
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