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Lecture 7

Lecture 7

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Department
History
Course
HISB31H3
Professor
Neville Panthaki
Semester
Winter

Description
JAN 26 • Collapse of the concert/congress Crimean War (1853-1856) • Crimean war was the conflict between France, Britain, Ottoman vs. Russia • Jingoism (nationalism) over restraint • Domestic concerns dictate aggressive foreign policy • A short war would promote national cohesion • Because of this war, Russia removed from European stability equation (lasted 50 years until WW1) • Euro nations pursue self-interest over collective interest • Exercise of conflict option rather than diplomacy • War was made an element of diplomacy rather than something that should be avoided Emergence of Nations by Force: • Italy and Germany emerged by force • Italian and german unification • Italy: war in 1848, 1859 • Germany: war in 1864 • Germany and Italy worked together in 1866 against Austria and in 1870 against France • This could not have happened without the consent of the euro powers • “war as politics by other means” • They thought that war was a military option for diplomacy Construction of Germany: • BISMARCK: • The plan was to create germany by destroying the old order and creating a new one • First aim was to make Prussia strong in “germany” • Prussia was the biggest state and the driver of germany unification • Bismarck was the chancellor for the Prussian King (ruled under a monarchy) • The idea was the strongest states should not be lost in the new order • The second aim was to make Germany strong and maintain it in Europe • He wanted to make sure the germany survived after being created • Germany was destroyed after WW1 • The idea is what is created by force can be destroyed by force • The third aim was to preserve and strengthen the monarchical-conservative order • He was quite autocratic • He wanted a democratic revolution, not a social revolution • He was not against Metternich’s system, he was against the aims • The first step to achieve these aims was to destroy old balance of power • He does this through policy of war: 1864 against Denmark in the north (consolidate), 1866 against Austria (regional) and 1870 against France (great Power) • The point is that none of this would have happened if the powers hadn’t fallen apart (Concert) • Russia was happy that France and Austria were defeated • The second step is to maintain new status quo through the policy of peace and preservation (1871-1890) • Bismarck is fired b
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