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Lecture 15

Lecture 15

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Neville Panthaki

MARCH 2 • Feb to Nov Revolution of 1917 o Provisional Govt (inaugurated March 2) o Petrograd Soviet o ***dual powers o These two bodies claimed legitimacy Petrograd: • Issued order #1 (march 1) • April theses of Lenin on April 3 (extending the beliefs of the Bolsheviks) o Bolsheviks will not allow itself to draw into a coalition unless the other platform was similar to theirs o They wanted end to war o Immediate land reform (because freedom was no longer attached to land, he wanted a transfer of power of those who worked the land, owned the land) o All power to soviets Kornilov Affair (End of Aug) • General K had lots of troops, surround Petrograd and use force to disperse them • What actually happened was the reverse • The general understood that he had power, he brought his troops, disband the government and to take over and become a dictator • The troops were defeated • The soviet helped the govt to retain power • The provisional govt lost authority Bolsheviks Vote Seize Power (Oct 23) • There was no option of legitimacy now • Constitution and legality is corrupt • They decided to seize power of Nov 7 • And they did Revolution Nov 7 • Bolsheviks gained key parts of the govt overnight • No one could stop them • In terms of implementation of the plan, which occurred immediately (end of Russia in war, transfer of land power) • This caused immense tension and angst in status quo powers Civil War 1918-21 • As soon as the war was over, a civil war erupts in the old territories of the Russian empire • France and UK was mad because Russia pulled out of the war which helped Germans • Lenin refused to pay debts and reparations • They refused to meet treaties that the Tsar made • They were not going to agree to treaties with France and UK over Ottoman territories • All these things began to cause problems • Led to Cold War (Nov 7, 1917) • The civil war involved the allies o Japan 60000, France/German 15000 each, USA 10000, UK 40000 • Bolsheviks were able to fight them off • This was a hot war, not a cold war, because of the tension between the countries • Stalin is a minister and Churchill controls the navy and troops • Russia lost a lot after WW1 (26% population, 27% fertile land, 33% manufacturing industry) • 20 million dead, 2 million emigrate (WW1, Civil war, influenza-plague) • Soviet education system was poor • 1922, assissation of Lenin fails (but becomes paralyzed) • He became so weak that he couldn’t even speak  leadership started to
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