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Lecture 14

Lecture 14

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Neville Panthaki

British India • The british administered india as a subcontinent, as a single colony • India (1600-1858) was ruled by British East India Company (Madras 1639), (Bombay, 1661) and (Calcutta, 1696)  3 administrative bodies • After mutiny of 1857, UK implemented direct rule until 1947 o West Pakistan (1947) o East Pakistan  Bangladesh (1972) • UK tried to group diverse groups together • Ruled Ceylon (Sri Lanka) through the Madras Presidency from 1795-1948 • India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka were ruled by UK admin • Burma annexed to India (1826-86)  crown colony Burma (1937-1948)  Myanmar (1989) • UK tried to create a single administration over a very diverse population • British tried to impose power through the English language James Stuart Mill: • Argued for vernacular • Mass education (from a utilitarian point of view) • For bottom-up transformation  empowerment (educate people while keeping their values) • Reconcile various Indian customs with british practises • Continuity and evolution  development Thomas Macaulay • Argued for a uniform English language  English medium schools • Elite education (create hierarchy through language, where English is at the top) • Top-down filtered (create educated classes) • Replace Indian customs with british law • Break with the past Direct Rule (1858-1947) • Mutiny represented nationalism • Diverse groups unified for a single cause • Weaponry evolved where it was self-contained (the cartridge of gun was packaged together, made it easier) • When this was introduced, the grease was made of cow and pig, offending both hindus and muslims • East India Company was replaced by the Govt of UK (who sent a viceroy, a delegate to administer and set up admin) • Govt began a recruitment shift of army, instead of eastern provinces (Bengal) it went to Punjab (1844-48) o This was because the Punjab were submissive and it did not rise for the revolt o The Punjab were used to put down the northern people, leaving a lingering hostility between the groups o Recruited Bengals/Bihar were high caste hindus o Recruited Punjab were Sikhs and Muslims o A tool of authority to favour certain groups • Reversal of reform agenda o No self govt, no interference in indian culture (old agenda) • Expansion and consolidation o Maratha wars (2 conflicts) (1802-1805, 1815-17) o British destroyed any independent kings that were not under UK rule o This allowed the Bombay presidency to move inward and pre
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