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Lecture 3

Grenville week 3 notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Neville Panthaki

1. The emergence of the United States as a world power th grthth of population, and of industrial and agricultural production of US, were phenomenal as their sustained increase through 19 20 centuries, overcoming 2 depressions in mid-1870s and mid-1890s as well as serious depression of 1930s, is one of economic wonders of modern history in 1880, the total population of US was about same as Germanys 10 years later and only 5 million more than Germanys at same time, thus, in population the US only just ranked in the same league as the largest of the European nations; but, from then on, the USs rapid outdistancing of previously comparable countries was one fundamental reason for the emergence of the US as a superpower crucial factor in growth of population was another feature of New World, large-scale emigration from Europe, which was driven largely by poverty and hope of better life, accounting for more than 13 million between 1900 and 1914 alonemost of them were peasants from central and southern Europe; majority of these new immigrants (to distinguish them from old immigrants from Britain, Ireland, Germany, and Scandinavia) settled in towns where they preferred to join their countrymen who had kept close together in cities and found unskilled industrial work; immigrants contributed significantly to growth of major cities, reinforced economic expansion and th helped to bring about mass market which is characteristic of 20 -century America rich cultural variety, diversity of ethnic groups from West and East, as well as sheer numbers of immigrants, are among unique features of national growth in 20century the shared experiences of two world wars were powerful influences in making for more toleration and mutual acceptanceone of the most significant aspects of the development of the US for world history age distribution of immigrants and their tendency to have larger families than American-born kept increase of population at much higher level than could otherwise be sustained, but at same time, the immigrants added immensely to the vitality of the US vast continent of US was singularly blessed in all its resourcesfertile land, forests, coal, iron, and oiland their simultaneous successful development provided dynamic of American economic growth that no European nation could match, and meant that Americans were less dependent on imports or exports than any other advanced Western nation in early 20 century, American business nevertheless expanded American exports to industrialized Europe, seeing this as a necessary insurance against a glut in the market at homeyet these exports were only a small proportion of Americas total production, which was protected at home by a high tariff Americas explosive growth was not achieved without severe political and social tensions, which was the other side of the optimism expressed at the turn of the century about the future as people began to ask who would control the destinies of the US western farmers were exposed to the vagaries of the seasons and also to the increases and falls of world grain prices southern US remained relatively stagnant, unable to diversify after the worldwide drop in cotton prices, which meant that cotton could no longer yield the same profit as before the civil war American workers in the mines and factories also tried to organize to meet the increas
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