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Lecture 2

Lecture notes week 2

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Neville Panthaki

Scramble for Africa N 1880 1914 (increased European competition) N Britain usually kept their colonies separate, but France combined their colonies in Africa N Industrial revolution economic expansion quest for raw materials imperialism N Periphery interior (consolidation) N Bringing order to chaoslack of borders o Geometric borders became the norm o Ethno-cultural groups dividedmore than 190 ethno-cultural groups o Bound diversity (with no prior history) o Lack of geographic unity (zones of climate) o 10 000 (African) unitswhether tribal, cultural, climate 40 (European) units N Indirect rulehappened mostly everywhere o Self-supporting colony for maximum profit (no overhead, maximum exploitation) o Industryeconomy (monopoly commercial company) o Government (order, tax, logistics, elites) o Cultural imprint minimal (at least in African case), but regressiondeterioration in standard of livingeducationeconomic ability of countries stagnation lack of development compound problems Nigeria N North ( pop of Nigeria) Muslim (religion) Hausa (lingual) Fulani (feudal economic classgovernment system) N Northern section put together with Western and Southern groups of Nigeria N West (Lagos) NativeChristian (religion) Yoruba (lingual) TribalZonal Kingdom (government system) N East (Poor) migrant into north and west and best educated as well NativeChristian (religion) Igbo (lingual) Autonomous Village Units (government system) Belgian Congo (ZaireDemocratic Republic of Congo) N Lopold IIset up Congo as an enterprise not as colony hired Henry Stanley (1878 1883) N 400 chiefs to sign treaties (network) N European Recognition 1885 (1 million square miles) Lopold got Congo N First export was ivory N Then rubber was exported, increasing 6000 times in just 11 years (1890 1 tonnes 1901 6000 tonnes) Joseph Conrad Heart of Darkness N 1885 190810 million killed = population of Congo N Triumvirate (1908) (power of three) government (administration) Church (welfare) (conversion of 13 population) mining corporation (economic) N Richest colony: Copper 10% world Diamonds 70% world Cobalt 50% world N Estimated taken from Congo from 1885 to 1950 is about $3 trillion in current terms Ruanda Urundi (Rwanda) N Tutsi (15% population) (feudal elite) Hutu (bonded labour) N Exclusively autocratic class ruling was Tutsi and exclusively the bonded labour was Hutu N Tutsi King Tutsi Cattle Chiefs (pledged allegiance to King) Hutu Land Chiefs (pledged allegiance to King) Army (Warrior) Chiefs (pledged allegiance to King) N Class racial, ethnic difference N German (first to make Ruanda and Urundi into one colony) Belgian (census and ID card) N Entrench and aggravate
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