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Lecture 3

Lecture notes week 3

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Neville Panthaki

American Civil War (1861 1865) N industrialization (economic expansion, labour) westward expansion (railroad) slavery (expandedprofit) N dead from total participants all other US wars, there were about 600 000 dead N in 1776, there were 4 million population and 13 states N in 1861, there were 31 million population and 33 states N slavery o began in 1619 and by 1776 (American independence) 16 of the population were enslaved o slavery did not start the American Civil War, instead it was the economic impact of slavery that started it o north control tradenorthern states controlled the movement of labour; they imported most of the labour and slaves and then distributed them to the south o north abolish slave trade in 1808, which didnt affect them as muchthey were not as much agrarian as the south o the north controlled it for the profit, not for the use of the slaves o southtobacco plantations (Virginia), rice plantations (South Carolina), sugar plantations (all throughout), cotton plantations (all throughout) cotton gin 1790s o when the north began to abolish slavery, it began to affect the south o by 1861, 90% of European cotton supply came from the US and 50% of cotton produced in the US was exported o Compromises of 1850 (Fugitive Slave Law)black slaves that had fled from the south to the north, would be given back to the south o 95% blacks in the south represented 13 of the southern total population o 5% blacks in the north represented 1% of the northern total population o abolition = several definitions immediateeverything happens now gradual processtransfer gradually from slavery to other forms of labour propertiedfreedom with or without land segregatedwhite lives separately and black lives separately votingrepresentation N Civil War Context (1861 1865) o reason for civil warstates versus federal rights as American economy grew, slavery territory grew as well possible abolition consequences on the economy of the south and southwest slavery ends 1865 Black Leaders and Movements N Booker T. Washington (1856 1915) o southern-born Black o accommodation within south with black government in the south N W.E.B. DuBois (1868 1963) (Massachusetts) o northern-born Black o Pan-African movement o NAACP leader (National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People), which was against Booker T. Washingtons ideals and points o affected by Russian Revolution3world solidarity, non-alignment o invited by Nkrumah, when Ghana gained independence to start work on the history of Africa from the perspective of Africans, called Encyclopaedia Africana o US refuse passport, which meant that he died in Ghana because he wasnt allowed to come back N Marcus Garvey (1887 1940) (Jamaica) o born in West Indies in Jamaica, but affected by the same things o Back to Africa Movement (1912 ) o felt that Booker T. was too passive and DuBois was too nave because he started NAACP o founded many associations that competed with the NAACPUnited Negro Improvement Association (UNIA), and African Communities League (ACL)the members were greater than the civil rights movement o Garvey saw things from the outsidesaw British administrated Jamaica and compared it American policies o stressed racial purity from 1921 to the end of his lifeBlack purity o this put him very much against DuBois and what NAACP was doing, which didnt talk about not Black enough like Garvey always talked about in racial purity o Liberian Program of the US o The Society for the Colonization of Free People of Colour of America set up by white people and run by them
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