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Lecture 4

Lecture notes week 4

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Neville Panthaki

Collapse of the ConcertCongress Crimean War (1853 1856) N France, Britain, Austria, Ottoman Empire vs. Russia N jingoism over restraintan appeal intended to arose patriotic emotions (jingoism) N domestic concerns dictateaggressive foreign policy N Russia was removed from European stability equation N European nations pursue own self-interest over collective interestresult of Crimean War N exercise of conflict option rather than diplomacyled to First World Warconflict is now acceptable 1. instead of trying to stop war, war was made a part of diplomacy N emergence of two nations by forceItaly and Germanyprior to this there had been no Italy, but instead some Italian states; and there had been no unified Germany, there had been Prussia and other German areas 2. Italian and German unification through many wars and the last two were against the same enemiesAustria and Francethe war dates were in 1848, 1859 1865, 1866Italy and Germany versus Austria, 1870Italy and Germany versus France 3. Bismarck sayswar as politics by other meanstaken from Casitas 4. this became a dictum in German policies after the Crimean War Bismarck N aims of Bismarck: 1. make Prussia strong in Germany 2. make Germany strong and maintain it in Europe 3. preserve and strengthen the monarchical-conservative order N what Bismarck creates is destroyed after the First World Warthe German Empire N Bismarck is not revolutionary in terms of Marx, but in terms of autocratic and diplomacy N Bismarcks German is similar to Russiahe wants a German united under Prussia N Step 1:destroy old balance of powerpolicy of war o 1864: Germany vs. Denmark (consolidate)by way Germany is united o 1866: Germany vs. Austria (regional)about who is going to be regional power of day o 1870: Germany vs. France (great power)inaugurates Germany as a great power N Step 2:maintain new status quopolicy is peace and preservation o 1871-1890Bismarck embarks on pure diplomacylongest period of European peace, replacing Metternich o in 1890, Bismarck is fired by King as Chancellor o it is German policy that tries to keep the peace and the demise N Bismarckian System 1870 1890 o All revolutionaries, once in power become conservativesrocks of the new orderBismarck became Metternichall revolutionaries are only revolutionaries until they are out of power, the moment they get power, they become status quonothing different about Bismarck and Metternich, after gaining power, Bismarck wanted the same things as Metternich o made by war, preserved through peace o prevent European backlashnew power in Europethemes of policies of Bismarck divide to maintaindivide rest of European powers to maintain power lock all players to Germanylock all European powers to Germany so they cant fight control the gamehold all conferences in Germany under Bismarck because if Bismarck is not in control of the game, then the fallout could effect Germany Bismarckian System German Diplomacy 1871 1890 N 3 on (vs.) 2 Alliance SystemGermany, Austria, Russia, Great Britain, France o before there were only 4 great powers, but now Germany is added o in a 3 on 2 situation, Germany will want to be tied to two different powers, so that the war is always in Germanys favour o there were be a division in Europe o first point of diplomacy is to ensure that Germany is always in a bundle of three (Bismarckian Math) N isolate France o France is out for revenge as it wont link to Germany o if there is ever a war, France will always be against Germany, therefore try and isolate France N maintain Austrian empire o right below Germany is Austria, and Italy is just below Austriawhich is why they are called the Central Powers in the First World War
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