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Lecture 6

Lecture notes week 6

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Neville Panthaki

World War I N America th o April 9 they declared war and the next month they started conscription o no training occurred in the continental US until September because there were no cantonments, no barracks o division size was too largeabout 16000 to 17000 (British had 12000 to 14000 per division) o Pershing demands cavalry, even though by now cavalry was abolished by this time o did not have the industrial equipment and therefore started using mixed equipment from Britain and France o Pershing also demanded independent command and that it would not be Allied co-ordinated o the Americans also didnt have the transport to take their soldiers to Europe, so British had to divert some of their ships, which were in the war, to transport Americans from May July (300 000month) N at this time, the powers started to drop out: o Oct. 31: Ottoman Empire ensued for peace and dropped out o Nov. 4: Austria-Hungary also asked for peace and dropped out o Nov. 4: there was a revolution in Germany and the government was toppled o Nov. 6: German Social Democrat government (the caretaker government) asked for armistice talks o Nov. 11: the armistice was reachednot the end of the war armistice meant ceasefirefire would be temporarily stopped, for negotiations, but if negotiations didnt work out, firing would continue The Versailles Settlement (1919) N French demands o French wanted to get back at Germans for 1870, the Franco-Prussian War o their first demand was the restoration of Alsace-Lorraine, which they got o the French also wanted to detach more territory, they wanted Ruhr and Saar, on the Rhine border they wanted the coal, which was profitable and could help their economy they wanted the coal, so that Germany could not make any industrial progress again o however, the French did not get Saar, instead there was a 15-year occupation given to the French, after which time there would be a plebiscite, where the people would be asked if they wanted to join France or Germany (the people voted to join Germany again after 15 years) o the French did not get Ruhr, but until the reparations were paid, the French could go into the Ruhr to get up to 40 45 tonnes of coal from that region a yearif the French extracted it or the Ruhr workers extracted it for them o the French also wanted a security pact, which they were not given a continuation of the Triple Entente security from Britain, so that if they were attacked, British soldiers would have to come in and help can take over Ruhr if they dont get the coal o reparations, which the Germans did not pay in starting in about the 1920s o Rhineland demilitarized, which was given to the French the French can mobilize their army right on the border, but the Germans cant militarize their army right on the France-Germany border this was so that if the Germany was to attack France, then they could see it coming N British demands o strong European market prior to 1914, Germany had been the strongest trading partner of Britain in Europe since Germany was going through their second industrialization, the British were able to be promoted o no desire for French hegemony the British had no desire to leave the French in charge of Europe this was de facto because Russia was destroyed, and Germany had lost o fear of Soviet influence the spread of Soviet revolution westwards they feared Russian Revolution, and so they wanted one strong power before Bolshevik revolution came trusted Germany to be that strong power o focus on colonies not in Europe o basically, the British did not support the French, they wanted Germany to stay strong in Europe N American demands o Wilson defeated in Senate in November 1918 because he didnt get the requisite two-thirds on the idea of the League of Nations, which Wilson disputed o in 1920 elections, Wilson lost and Harding won and became the new President o Harding made it known that America would stay out of European affairs and pay attention to domestic affairs
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