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Lecture notes week 7

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Neville Panthaki

Russian Revolution N replicates French Revolution very nicely in its implications N there are still various interpretationshow it happened, when it happened, where it happened, the timeline o it empowered the masses of the people, so that it was victorious massesthe Revolution is a good thing o another interpretation was that it was an unwanted coupthat it put the country through misery, which Russia finally broke through after many decades o through these two interpretations, it usually comes out as tragic, inspirational o however, your opinion really is influenced by your knowledge of history before 1917 o your opinion also influences post 1917 events in Russia but also throughout world o your opinion = ideological IDyou can tell what a person thinks about history prior and after the Russian Revolution by their thinking of the revolution Marxism N Workers of the world, unite!Marxs main quote and used as a slogan by socialists N it didnt just arise out of open-ended theory without precedence N Karl Marx and Frederich Engels drew on philosophical influences o 18thcentury enlightenment from the French Revolutionfirmly grounded to the world o French utopian socialismlast greatest upheaval prior to Marxism was the French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars and their representation of republicanism o German romanticismbecause both Marx and Engels are Germans, they are rooted in their time; romanticism because just before German unification, Germans in the area around Prussia all were very nationalistic and romanticized by the idea of a separate German nation o classical economic theoryboth Marx and Engels were economists, so they thought in terms of numbers N philosophical influences put into the context of times o Industrial Revolutioncomes primarily from Engels who was living in London at this time and travelling around in cities; his assessment is that it ruins the masses further; Dickens is quite similar to Engels o German platform socialism comes from Marxthis is an emerging German socialism, not a French utopian socialism, as it is dealing with a step prior to the French socialism; the German socialism that is emerging is based on romanticism and a yearning for Germans to have their own nation o Revolution of 1848both Marx and Engels are very anti-bourgeois (the very class they were from) o soon becomes anti-capitalist with a proletariat focus; proletariat means the working class, the industrial labourer, who as a result of the Industrial Revolution is used for his labour in this system of the economy N immediate reference for these socialists were: o Hegel: Philosophy of Right Hegel determined that what is right is based on the money or materialism (primacy of $) materialism is the basis of Hegel rational formula coincidence o dialectic (action reactions) o history = conversation material (money, wealth makes world go around) N if all of this is not new and it is grounded in the French Revolutions, Hegel, and Revolutions of 1848, then what makes Marx and Engels so new and Marxism so different Innovation (Marx + Engels) N history = haves vs. have-nots o any period, any geographic location, any form of people can be divided into the haves and have-nots N power = those possess means of production (the haves) o what gives them power is production, the means of production or the materialism N all socialeconomicgovernmentracial-tribal institutions based upon history-power relationship o no divisions or racial-tribal differences exists, they are all based upon the haves vs. have-nots o the only real subject is economics, there are no racial differences, no social differences, no political differences everything is based on the economics N therefore, in Marxs view: History = Conversation Class-Struggle (Dialectic) o it is always formulated in a cyclical way a cyclical formula 1) thesis (condition)the condition is inherently flawed because it is based on differences 2) anti-thesis (conflict)the have-nots try to overthrow the haves, to get what they want 3) synthesis (new condition)the have-nots want their rights, which leads to civil war, and that stops when the have-nots are able to overthrow their oppressors to become the new oppressors o this is a cyclical formula because it continues on throughout history
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