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Lecture notes week 10

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Neville Panthaki

Weimar Republic N at the end of WWI, the Monarch collapsed it was an organized collapsed N November 10, 1918: the German Monarchy collapsed o even before, from about 1916, the German military and the high command were in command o by 1916, the King although still the figurehead of Germany, the government was in control of the high command o when the high command understood that they couldnt win the war, they let the monarchy fall o the army was in charge for 1 to 1 years before the collapse o the army wanted to surrender because they knew that they wouldnt be able to win o however, they knew that they couldnt leave the war, so they needed a scapegoat o the reasons that the army couldnt just surrender because: (1) they wanted to be rid of the monarchy and they also wanted to retain control, and (2) they didnt want to be hated o so basically, the army pulled their support from the monarchy and allowed a caretaker government in, in the form of the Social Democrats (SD) the caretaker government signed the armistice the next day N March 13, 1920: Kapp Putsch (army control) o Kapp said that since the caretaker government was under army control, then get rid of the caretaker government and take control openly o however, the high command said that if that happened, then the Allied governments might come in and restore the monarchy and bring down the army and the caretaker government o Kapp organized a putsch (coup), which actually failed, but benefited the high command the army was able to expand and actually gain more power after the Kapp Putsch o this begins to change the fascist partys role as well N November 6 8, 1923: Munich Putsch (emergency powers) o the fascists are at a pub and after drinking a lot, spill out on the road and start to revolt o the high command puts the putsch down o at this time, the Nazi fascist party is starting to become a thorn in the army N 1928 1931: Army Nazi rapprochement (Nazis join army) o however, like in Italy, the Nazi party is starting to gain power o the people are blaming everything on the government, since they dont know that the army is actually in power o at this time, the army decides to create an understanding or a rapprochement with the Nazi party o the understanding reached is that the army allows fascism to grow and crack away at the government, as long as the fascists do not try to take over the streets o they also make the mistake of letting the fascists join the army N 1931 1932: Schleicher Chancellor (President Hindenburg refuses Hitler) o this period is the high point of army control as one of their own is declared chancellor o the only thing stopping Schleicher from making chancellor is the president Hindenburg o however, Hindenburg allows Schleicher to become chancellor because the only other choice is Hitlers Nazis, but Hindenburg does not like Hitler and the Nazis o this leads to a breakdown of the Army Nazi rapprochement o from this point onwards, the Nazis work against the government and the high command N January 1933: Hindenburg refuses emergency powers to Schleicher o the army has the power to rule over the streets through hooliganism o however, for this, the government would have to get emergency powers o Hindenburg refuses to give Schleicher the emergency powers and due to this the Schleicher government falls o Hindenburg then gives power to Hitler, who forms the government N February 1933: Bans Communist Party o the first thing that Hitler does is ban the communist party because it is bigger than the fascist party o when Hitler bans them, no one says anything, not even the military, because the military, who are getting pushed out, does not like the communists either o it takes until May to outlaw the communist party o this is the only thing that Hitler does constitutionally N March 1933: suspends constitution o Hitler cannot do this himself, Hindenburg has to do it, but Hitler still does it before approaching Hindenburg N June 30, 1934: Night of Long Knives o the next thing that Hitler does is purge the old army through his new army o Hitler started to organize a new militia when coming to power, called the SS o once his new militia is organized, Hitler gets rid of, suspends, and kills his old allies o basically the SS eliminates the SA the new fascists get rid of the old fascists o now Hitler has a new militia completely loyal to him
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