Class Notes (839,385)
Canada (511,321)
History (737)
HISB41H3 (45)
Lecture

HISB41 Feb 25.docx

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Department
History
Course Code
HISB41H3
Professor
Nadia Jones- Gailani

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HISB41 Lecture February 25th World War 2 Canada enters the war Growth of isolationist policies – Canada taking policies from the US Growth of communism and fascism – during 20s and 30s Fascist ideas originated in Italy – modified to fit context of countries such as Germany – It developed into a distinct form of fascism- national socialism – Nazism Nazis wanted to create German homeland – did this by annexing other countries – Austria then Poland 1939 – starts WW2 First response to Germans was Appeasement – Allies are anxious to avoid engaging in another war – Idea behind appeasement was to keep the peace – avoid conflict After Poland is annexed appeasement is no longer an option – 1939 – Britain is first enters the war WW1 – As soon as Brits entered the war Canada is automatically in vs. WW2 Canada has option – Canada soon entered after Britain – there was really no chance Canada wouldn‟t, to exercise autonomy Canada waits a week after Britain to declare war – important/symbolic move to exercise autonomy National resources mobilization act put into place – mobilizes soldiers for home defense Canada‟s contribution – over the course of the war over 1 million Canadians serving the war – big commitment considering size of population Canadian men enter the war – a lot of the same motivating factors as WW1 – exercising their duty as a Canadian – social pressures from local and federal level – fighting for democracy & freedom – same religious and social rhetoric as WW1 – Canada is just coming out of the depression, this was a motive/way to get jobs and higher wages – Wartime economy booms 1941- Hitler had succeeded in taking over almost all of Western Europe Fall of France- Canada becomes a strong ally to Britain Canada had a very small army when WW2 started, Canada offers economic support during WW2 - $3 billion in mutual aid agreements – Canada was able to put that money into productions that would happen in Canada- munitions manufacturing – central Canada – being a huge boost for the economy – change from depression era Canada decides to fund British Commonwealth air training – British pilots could train Canadian pilots to create an air force – eventually these pilots would become part of a Canadian force Royal Canadian navy employed men and women – had responsibility of defending convoys of troops and supplies (mainly British) – was dangerous- bad weather and constant fear of attack from U-boats Navy took part in Normandy invasion of June 1944- mass casualties- Canadian troops managed to secure German held beach Allied raid of Dieppe – Aug 1942 – described as a complete disaster – 60% of Cdn troops killed Invasion of Italy in 1943- King pressured Churchill to allow Cdns to run the mission – High casualties – moling – going from house to house US enters WW2 after bombing of Pearl Harbour – Canada takes the backseat – US becomes Britain‟s primary ally – King argues for Cdn control of food production and distribution of soldiers abroad Issue of conscription is raised once again – King takes cautious measures- holds a nationwide plebiscite – asks Canadians if we should enforce conscription – 80% eng cdns in favour vs. 27% of French cdns in favour – He‟s able to delay conscription for as long as possible – up to Nov of 1944 – avoids crisis that happened in WW1 Wartime economy Government intervention, inflation and control of the economy is amplified during WW2 – increase in govt activity in the economy and increased government spending during WW2 Government takes a heavier hand in regulating the economy- sweeping powers on war manufacturing/goods of the war King brings controlled wages, control over pricing, done by appealing to Canadian patriotism- asks everyone to buy victory bonds, way of putting billions of dollars back to Govt- spending money for the wartime economy During WW1 unmarried women had entered the workforce to make up lack of labour, same thing happens in WW2 but in higher numbers- retail sales, teachers, factory workers – we also see many married women entering the workforce (significant difference from WW1) A lot less married women enter the workforce in French Canada – pressure from the church to maintain gender roles Women had a significant domestic role on the home front- rationing, taking advantage of black market goods, gardening to supply their families with fresh food- schemes to collect materials like scrap metal to contribute to war Women entering the Canadian forces during WW2 – women in the military force referred to as Jill Canucks- Canadian military army Corps – eventually incorporated in the Cdn army in 1942 Many posters and advertisements targeted women to enter the military force – also promoting women in the home Toward Federal Supremacy: By controlling the economy, Govt is able to control inflation – which had a devastating effect in WW1, by being more actively involved in the economy and censoring speech and creating positive images of war effort During the depression, provinces had begun to rely on funding from Ottawa- push to centralization- blurred the lines between provincial and federal powers – what are the boundaries? King started planning for post war reconstruction well before the war was over- try to avoid the situations that had occurred after WW1- political ideological conflict, inflation and strikes, prevent Canada from going into depression like circumstances in WW1 In 1941 – Committee on Reconstruction – took people from labour and academics to get their input on how to avoid depression conditions – committee files report- creation of the welfare state – advocating comprehensive system of social security – unemployment insurance, health insurance, old age pension and allowance for people who have children – govt listens to suggestions- measures put in to place include VETERANS charter – loans, education and housing for people coming back from the war + Family allowance (1944) – provided Cdn mothers a lump sum every month – mothers didn‟t have to contribute to this fund, same amount was provided to all mothers – the CCF had called for these measures earlier – govt finally got to it in the mid 40s Unemployment insurance fund – King gearing up for „45 election – Reform parties like the CCF had become extremely powerful – official opposition in Ontario and governing party in Sask. – Tommy Douglas – founder of medicare in Canada – increasingly putting pressure on govt to enforce welfare state Unions- growing in size and also in power during the war – Federal govt gives them the right to bargain collectively – worker treatment and conditions are improving King giving concessions to groups – gains enough support to be reelected National Health Insurance- King offered to pay for health fund but took a lot of time to get all provinces on board – Quebec and Alberta last to join – War and National Unity: WW2 can be seen as a step back for Canada from the image of a “colonial helper” King still managed to avoid such tensions – was much more effective at promoting war effort – censoring the press – creation of the National Film Board (1939) – responsible for creating propaganda films- promoting Cdn forces and patriotism – also dividing issues- treatment of enemy aliens – internment camps at a larger scale in WW2 – German cdns interned in camps such as those in northern Ontario + Italians rounded up, targeted after Italy entered the war- believed to be supporting and promoting fascism – many of them were actually involved in promoting it in Canada – Japanese Canadians were the most targeted after Pearl Harbour- Canadians concerned that Western Japanese Canadians would help the enemy- huge move to move 20,000 Japanese Canadians to internment in land camps- move away from coasts – whole families were moved Instead of allowing them to return home, many were deported or resettled after WW2 – Federal and popular opinion was against Japanese Canadians – govt issues an official apology but not until 1988 Lecture 2- Post war immigration to Canada Three phases
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