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HISB41H3 (45)

HISB41 March 11.docx

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Nadia Jones- Gailani

HISB41 March 11 Exam: 4 short answer questions and one long essay Lecture outline: Consumer culture Post war changes Baby boom Post war experts Economic boom Consumerism and suburbia Meaning of booms Fall of WW2 – canada’s golden age. Period of positive growth and positive expansion Images of 50s, consumer goods, housewives, idealized suburban lifestyle. Only a reality for certain sectors of the Canadian population Baby boom – 12.1 million in 45, doubled to 22.7 mill in 1975 1959, peak of baby boom Factors: high rate of marriage in the post war period, many people had postponed their marriages Average age of marriage is younger, people are getting married at a younger age, and they are also having children at a faster rate. Women are only waiting 1.5 years to have their first child compared to 2 years Increase in the number of children in Canada, dramatic pressure on the school system. Not enough schools to accommodate children. New schools were built and educating teachers, rise in the professionalism of teachers, more teachers being trained and more schools being built Post war experts Mother, father and psychologists interested in child rearing and personality development Targeting Canadians and also immigrants Writing advice manuals. Designed to instruct parents on how to raise children, ‘normal’ children. Canada’s Dr. Spock- permissive parenting techniques Blatz and Laycock, wanted to bring psychology. Part of this parenting technique advice was the modern separate spheres of ideology – reinforcing gender roles in the family. Chatelaine- marriage should no longer be a patriarchal institution where men would exert power over women. Democratize the family, idea that husbands would no longer dictate to their lives but they should work together to raise good Canadian families Idea of marriage as a partnership, women also has responsibility but still based on traditional views of women staying home to rear the children. Democratic family ideal reinforces gender roles Experts encourage women to maintain their physical appearances to maintain sexual relationships. Providing not only advice on how to be good mothers and fathers but also good partners/sexual partners. Rearing “normal” Canadian children. Reason this is happening during this period because of this growing increase of women into the workforce. Professional women on the rise. Anxiety around changing gender roles. 1941- 1/10 worked outside the home, 1961 – 1/5 women outside the home Middle class ideal the experts were targeting ECONOMIC BOOM Canadians are concerned about the health of the economy, many had lived through the depression, don’t want to see Canada go back to those conditions. King had been very concerned about the economy, there is a slight boom. Wartime companies were converted into different kinds of industries after the war was over. Govt had heavy hands to play in taking charge of the economy and making sure the economy didn’t go back to depression era conditions. Provided incentives to industrialists to sell off part of their war plants on the condition that they would be reopened as consumer industries. Reconverting war time productions to useful consumer productions after the war was over. Policy of liberalization in terms of international trade. Lower tariffs on exports (Canada is very reliable on exports), reduction of taxes, reduced on foreign investments, which brought in a lot of foreign investors to invest in Cdn economy. Canada signed off on GATT in 1947, which encouraged western nations like US and Brit to lower their trade barriers and encourage intl trade. Effect is to draw Canada closer economically with the US. 50s – consumer products and rise in American branch plants in Canada which are producing many of these new consumer products. Bought about a growing concern from Canadians of the impact of growing cultural and economical ties to the US, what it would mean for Cdn economy and culture. New jobs and industries brought a better standard of living for many Cdns. 1945-56 manufacturing wages doubled. Enforced work week of 40 hours, post war period and intro of new social programs, social welfare, pensions and family allowance. Not an equal distribution. Central Canada feels the economic boom (auto industry especially).1951 10% of working cdns are involved in auto industry in southern Ontario. Many cdns were still quite poor especially in the Atlantic Provinces. Income disparity- 40% less than Cdn average CONSUMERISM Despite the unequal economic boom, post war period is overall a period of prosperity, new demand for consumer goods. After the war, huge growth of consumer goods on the shelves. Alters the lives of Canadians . 1941 21% had electric fridge, 19610 90% had an electric fridge – could keep different kinds of food longer. Cdns are also buying more TVs and automatic washing machines.huge market for washing machines. Disparity between Canada and America on this product, Cdn consumers weren’t as sure of washing machines, preferred to stick with the wringer washing machine. Women were suspicious because they couldn’t control the amount of water used in washing machines. Suspicion – consumer goods like washing machine were a lot more expensive in Canada than the US, same for many other consumer goods. Parallel between the growth in US and Canada but difference in the kinds of products Cdns are buying. SUBURBIA During the war- housing shortage in the cities, after the war, baby boom, economic boom, ideal conditions to expand rapidly into urban areas, trends in the WW period – birth of suburbia Residential areas characterized by low density and typically located at the urban fringe. Just outside the perimeter of cities. Part of its growth was b/c of govt. Central mortgage and housing, provided cheap mortgages on new homes- made it possible for more cdns to own their own homes than it had been possible before. Period when Scarborough, north York and etobicoke came into being and developed. Don mills suburb- huge development which served as the prototype for other suburban developments Suburbs were built by corporations and selling houses – new development. Building houses on standardized plan. Development of suburbia in terms of all of the houses look the same, built on model of uniformity and conformity. Arranged differently than what we see earlier, not on grid pattern but curval linear construction. Immigrant families tended to stay and live within in the cities because they couldn’t afford a car or mortgage. Suburbia was possible because of cars, not readily accessible by public transportation Development of consumerism based around cars – drive thrus First McDonalds in Canada 1967 in BC, designed for drivers. Had no indoor seating, pick up the food and at in the car, new type of leisure Construction of strip malls –new consumer and culture, build new social spaces. Park your car and shop fr the day and spend leisure time. Not all were enjoyed in public spaces TV – enjoyed in the privacy of the home. 1952, 146,000 cdns who owned a television ,1957- 3 million families who owned TVs. TV was in the family room and used as a family activity, people believed it could be used to educate the masses. BBC/CBC balanced their broadcasts, info-tainment. Cdns are also watching American shows like I love lucy and leave it to beaver, being exposed to American culture that no one before them had. Meaning of the booms – interrelated. Fit together, possible because of govt initiatives which were encouraging growth and development. Also part of expansion and federal control of the economy. Concern of American influences (especially culture). Advent of fast food – changing Canadian food patterns. Life changes for CDNS in other ways, flushing toilets and running water for people in both rural and urban areas. Changes in daily life for Canadians. 1941 61% of homes had running water, 1961 – 89% Growth in a Cdn middle class. Idealized pictures from 50s of housewife with suburban home and consumer products – new professional class. Transportat
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