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HISB41H3 (45)
Lecture 6

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Nadia Jones- Gailani

HISB41H3 - Making of Modern Canada Midterm - February 11, 2013 - Chapter 15 to 18 / Lecture Material (remember specific dates) - 1 hour - Four short answer questions identify and state historical significance; full sentences/paragraph format The Twenties: A Decade of Adjustment Political Change - Laurier dies in 191 and is succeed by William Lyon Mackenzie King and Arthur Meighen succeeds Borden after he resigns - William Lyon Mackenzie King sees himself as reformer and becomes Liberal PM in 1921 - Arthur Meighen leader of opposition very unpopular and involved with drafting the conscription bill, prosecution of protest leader during the Winnipeg general strike. Thus he was very well known at the time. The reason he was voted in was because the conservative party was very disconnected with politics of the nation at this time - 1921 election is noted for Canadians voting in first minority government and house of commons divided nationally that divid politics. Maritime and Quebec very much support King and for the first time there is the emergence of a third national party - 1901/1920 on the coast there are grievances that come to surface that drive the political landscape; conscription, tariff and lack of political representation in parliament National Progressive Party - party many made up of farmers located in the prairies although some farmers in Ontario supported them on behalf of farmers - Mirror populist politics and movement in the states - fighting for the rights of the common man. They were fighting against the rise of big busy and that there is very little support for farmers at this time. This group believed that the two major groups undermined their needs - The NPP wanted a reduction of freight rates, more CPR cars for grain and reduced tariff (major demand) - There is a lot of internal division in this party from the beginning unable for them to make any rue break through and the break between the party was between Thomas Crerar former Union Minister of Agriculture and Henry Wise-wood, American Populist; unable to work towards a common goal but important voting block for King who has a minority government at this time. He does moderately reduce the tariff and restore lower freight rates - King was also juggling the demands of the Maritime Rights Movement Maritime Rights Movement - Lower tariff for this group meant lower production and they were looking for increase federal subsidies (support); looking for better political representation in parliament HISB41H3 - Making of Modern Canada - They were also looking to bring jobs back into the Maritimes and King is less interested in them because they were not a significant voting block and a smaller group thus they vote conservative because King fails to meet their demands Economic Adjustment - The decade can be split in half; the economy was unstable until 1925. From 1925-1930 there was a brief 5 year boom. This was because of inflation from the war, staple economy (fish, timber and wheat) was making a shift to new resource economy (pulp and paper, mining, consumer production) and lastly a transition from British to U.S trade and investment - Production of automobiles in the 1920s and other consumer goods are with start Canada on the road to recovery but this production does not sustain itself and over time Canadian car companies end up being bought out by U.S companies - This is a period where we see Canadian dependency on the U.S developing. In 1923 there is more exports to U.S than to Britain. However this wasn’t a difficult shift for Canada to make because of U.S restriction Economic Adjustment - from 1925-1930 there is a brief economic boom and easing of U.S protectionist policies. This boom was really about pulp and paper which becomes a very important industry and becomes Canada’s biggest exported good. Driving this demand is the beginning of mass production of newspapers in the U.S. By the end of the decade Canada produced enough pulp and paper to raise economic revenue. What drove this was the cheap cost of hydroelectric power and thus making it profitable because of the increase demand - There is also a mining boom by the mid-1920s; metals are in high demands because of new inventions. The International Nickel Company of Canada controlled 90% of the worlds nickel production and there were new international investors that took interest in Canadian mining sector - Fluctuation of economy still hit families hard with no job security etc. Developments - The growth of the service center was driven by the production of good; washing machines, etc become available for purchase and built around it was a service industry (a secondary economy that grew around it). Another development that started was transportation; the car was one as well as road construction, and condition. As well as communication development through the radio and telephone; used also to sell products, and development of movies with sound. - Driving the development of consumer goods was also consumer credit; “Buy now, pay later” shift from exclusively cash purchases and seen mostly in department stores which also push a lot of small business owners out of busy in the 1920s - There are still very few high paying jobs, as well as race and class still effect some people looking for jobs and growing efficiency of management is still an issue. Low- HISB41H3 - Making of Modern Canada wages cause a big out-migration towards the end of the 1920s when there was higher paying jobs - 1920s in the visual arts there is the push to establish a distinct identity from the U.S.; the group of seven (Ontario based artist) trying to create a vision of the Canadian North From Colony to Nation - Canada begins moving to great autonomy - When Britain signed the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 Canada was still without independent status for foreign affairs so what King does is mirror his politics after the U.S; isolating Canada. - Him and O.D Skelton looking to recovery of the nation rather than looking at outside squrimishes and this was seen as a continental harmony between Canada and the U.S. Through the Undersecretary of Foreign Affairs Foreign Policy - In 1923 U.S and Canada singed the Pacific Halibut Treaty that looked at specific fishing rights (Canada urged to be able to sign this treaty along without Britain); this was the first treaty signed without Britain and it was an important moment for domestic and foreign policy in Canada, it was see as the beginning of Canada autonomy - From 1923 onward Canada begins to develop its own foreign policy. King pushes this further so in 1926 at an imperial conference the Balfour Declaration was signed where each colony was view as independent. This was seen as a further step towards autonomy although Britain at this time still had finally say. - Status of Westminster that was signed in 1931 is were Canada gained autonomy in foreign affairs from Britain and similar in many ways to the Balfour Declaration but was the only first step in Constitutional autonomy Main point: The gradual shift from British control to American sphere of influence in th
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