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HISB41H3 (45)

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Nadia Jones- Gailani

HISB41H3 - Making of Modern Canada Laurier & The Laurier Boom: The Impact of Immigration & Industrialization - 1896 to 1911 - Laurier made claim that 20th century would belong to Canada (over statement but right about how Canada would go through a lot of changes) - The ‘National Policy’: - wanted to impose high tariffs designed to stimulate a strong manufacturing sector in the economy - Railways: rapid completion of the CPR - Development of the West through Laurier Liberalism - The period Laurier comes into power in 1896 was first French-Canadian Prime Minister - He inherited a very divided Canada - Discontent among French-Canadians and Aboriginals (a lot of cultural discontent) - A lot of political uncertainty - By 1896 government has really lost control (especially of Quebec) yet it paves the way for Laurier’s liberal part to come into power - Why vote for Laurier? He is offering Canada a compromise (ease some of the cultural tensions) - Anti-Clerical: stands up to conservative power over churches in French Canada - Free Trade - Canadian Unity: promoting a united Canada not pushing a French-Canadian agenda - starting to see the national policy paying off; economic up turn and economic change - high import tariff/low export tariff - Willing to work with conservatives and manages to maintain a lot of the policies previously imposed (promoting Canadian prosperity) - We see industries like farming, mining, etc begin to thrive Laurier Boom - Canada’s two transcontinental railways are completed: Canadian Norther Railway and Grand Trunk Railway - Opens up new mining areas, and new secondary industries in Ontario/Quebec - The Canadian economy is on an upswing and it is here that you see new inventions - Telephone - Alexander Graham Bell (1876) - Transatlantic Underwater Cable - Sir Sandford Fleming - Guglielmo Marconi (1901) - this means businesses can keep in contact, and see the standardization of time and development of timezones (uniformity) - Development of big businesses/Private Enterprise - Massey-Harris Company: produces farm machinery - Timothy Eaton: first Eatons store (1869) at corner of Queen&Younge HISB41H3 - Making of Modern Canada - Eaton becomes this public image of big business (first to use electric lights, mass employees, etc.) - First to develop brand shopping: people who shopped there known as Eatonians - However big businesses only developed in Ontario/QUebec owned by Anglo- Canadians; very few owned by French-Canadians Regional Development - This boom of development was uneven and not all areas are able to capitalize this in the same way; Maritimes and BC actually experience downturn in the the 20th century - This is due to their economies relying on lumber, and it is not as needed anymore - Nova Scotia no longer able to capitalize on ship building - Coal mining in Cape Brenton slows - Economies are too heavily reliant on few industries and the societies are very small in populations (not enough people wanted to settle in the West) - Lack of diversity/small population resulted in the slow growth in the Maritimes and BC - However the prairie provinces see economic development - The government offered free home settlements for people who were willing to settle in the west (Dominion Lands Act 1872) - Created North West Mounted Police to change image of the “Wild West” however they created this visible presence of law&order (people still criticized it); symbolized also the American Border (stationed at the border of Canada/U.S.) - Yet no matter what government did immigrants did not want to settle in the west - 1893 there was still land available elsewhere that allowed immigrants to farm crops they were familiar with - Settling in the West was due to the closing in the American Frontier - Once people settled in the west there grew an economy of grain (intentions of grain elevators established along the railway line, irrigation projects) - 1871: 25,00 people - 1911: 1.4 million people - Central Canada is more prosperous at the beginning of the 20th century due to their diversity - Manufacturing sectors expand and boom - Secondary industries begin to develop: INternational Nickel Company of Canada (INCO); towns developed around these mining industries - Growing diversification in Central Canada; yet uneven at how it effects different cultural groups - First Nations begin to see their rights taken away, often citizenship revoked and considered minors and in order to reinstate citizenship they had to give up claims to land (Indian Act 1880) - Development of residential schools (assimilation into new Canadian society) HISB41H3 - Making of Modern Canada Migrations: A Nation on the Move - beginning of the 20th century people are on the move both into and out of Canada - Immigration: migration into Canada - Emigration: migration out of Canada (also outmigration) - Net Migration: different in numbers between immigrant and emigrant numbers - Internal Migration: movement within or between regions in Canada - Great Diaspora from the Atlantic Provinces - Rural to Urban migration (20th century is the growth of urban development) - “Passing Through” Migration” migrants who land in Canada with the intention of settling in the U.s. A Nat
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