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HISB41H3 (45)

Lecture 2

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University of Toronto Scarborough
C Pennington

Lecture 2 January-17-11 1:56 PM The Laurier Boom 1896-1911 The theme of last week - late 19th cent - great unease - uncertainty - as to whether it could survive - that defined that period - economic depression - people were struggling But the laurier boom - are remembered much more fondly - positive economic times National policy - finally started to work - growth in economy - industry and western settlement More than 1 million people immigrated to western canada during 1896-1911 - half of country was opened up No issues that seriously divided the people These were peaceful prosperous optimistic times Laurier said - at turn of century - the 19th century may have belonged to US but the 20th century will belong to Canada By 1950 - 60 million - estimate - that optimism associated with Laurier He personified all the good things that Canada can become - called the first Canadian His picture Laurier embodied both founding cultures - was french - but respected british institutions He personified good times - when queen ruled the throne - sun never set on the British empire Stats - 1861 4.3 million population 1911 7.2 million British 2.6 milion 61% 4 million 56% French 1.3 million 30% 2.1 million 29% Other Euro from .4 million to 1.1 million Ukrainian - from 0 to 75,000 - mostly on praries Aboriginals declined from 108,000 to 105,000 Negro 21,000 to 17,000 Africans told - it is too cold here Asiatic - chinese - blocked by govt measures - jumped over hurdles anyways Japanese, sikhs 4000 in 1881 to 43,000 in 1991 - govt did not feel very good about it Ethnic composition slowly changing - but if you come to canada - remake yourself as English Canadians - those who were different - were not really welcome - far away from multiculturalism 1960s 1881 - 75% rural to 54% in 1911 Regional distribution: Ontario 44% to 35% Quebec 33 to 38 Maritimes 20 to 13 Western 4 to 24 Annual immigration 47k to 331 - mostly from outside - these figures never matched again Sir Wilfred Laurier 1841-1919 Lawyer and journalist Federal mp 1874-1919 Liberal leader 1887-1919 PM 1896-1911 The first canadian Special personality French canadian - 9th generation - could trace lineage back He was lawyer and journalist 1866 - wrote confederation would be tomb of French race That is how he got established 1874-1919 federal MP 43 yrs - still unmatched today 1887-1919 till death - leader of libs 1896-1911 - 16 yrs - longest record Called first canadian - embodied both cultures His greatest political skill - great orator - in both languages Flawless french and english His parents had high hopes for him - sent to live with scottish family - spoke with scottish accent - made english audience more friendly to him Macdonald was the kind of guy who was not above fights in house of commons - throwing up drunk - he was not dignified character He had very easy going self depracating kind of charm Laurier was more aristocratic - people didnt relate to his as easily - but they admired him - manners, cordiallity, he was handsome man, ladies loved him Picture of him wearing his hat during tour of western Canada Nobody called him Wilf Winning Liberal formula French English cooperation Economic growth Provincial rights - laurier greenway compromise 1897 Loyalty to britain Patronage Pic - laurier on campaign trail He fostered positive french english relations Occupied with national unity - he personified it He dealt with sig issues as PM - always retained good relations Fortunate - period of economic growth He didnt understand economics very well - speech on economic policy - afterwards his advisor - said give me the speech and he threw it in the river He knew about race religion and national unity - cant give him credit for economic growth But that helped - times were good Macdonald era - tory times are hard times Laurier - greater extent than macdonald - respected provincial rights - didnt interfere - macdonald did, treated provinces like naughty children Laurier did not do that - allowed them to be sovereign Even though it meant it could not project itself firmly 1897 - sunny ways policies - french schools in Manitoba - after 1896 he had to do that - met with premier of Manitoba Compromise - allowed for religious instruction for 30 mins a day in protestant school system Catholic teachers if numbers warranted it - 40 students or more in urban area - 25 in rural area - or if enough numbers of students spoke french then instruction in french That is not the same as equal funded bilingual schools End of bilingualism on the praries - followed by other provinces Laurier said this was the best he could do Laurier he acquiesced He didnt do enough for the catholic schools - as conservatives would have done under Tupper www.notesolution.comLoyalty to Britain - always praised the empire - sometimes over the top - more british than the britisih - to overcome the mistrust against him Papers filled with doubt than canadians would vote for french PM - 1890s He pleaded with the party to replace him - thought he was a handicap to the party Proven wrong - he became iconic figure Dramatic moment - it was only then that french canadians took their place in confederation - laurier was like our first black President - many people thought it would never happen The least noble thing - he dished out patronage - gave friends political jobs - lucrative govt contracts - same as macdonald - scratch back politics He is remembered as angelic figure - his scandals often forgotten - corruption - old ways of doing politics He would be surprised of how fondly he is remembered - his image has not been tarnished Interesting detail - rumoured extramarital affair with law partner's wife - Emily laverne? Not entirely upright in morality - but we dont know for sure Economic boom 1896-1911 Left national policy as it was - high tariffs - no free trade One adjustment - reduced tariffs against Britain - lower rate That did well with Canadians - brit good were popular - seemed patriotic - imperial preference Contributed to positive economic times - not major Western expansion - in population and numbers of farmers Clifford sifton - picture - poster for the west - free land - appealing to european peasant farmers Sifton
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