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HISB41H3 (45)

HISB41; j16.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Dan Azoulay

Tanneries, artisan, factory acts, “the ward,” scientific management, fred taylor/ taylorism, “family economy,” “putting out,” stenographer, pink-collar, “shop girls,” piece raters, semi-skilled, garment subcontractors 1. Canada’s economy was largely a resource based economy Only a minority, maybe 20%, were involved in other economies Manufacturing was mainly small scaled Many were family members that worked in these shops ; boots, barrels, etc Mostly hand-made objects that were sold to the farming industry Artisans took great pride in work because they were hand made Only large scale companies were connected to the growth of rail roads Railways, tracks, steam engine, etc Iron and steel mills Only small number had white collar jobs Largest group were merchants Wholesalers; imported/ exported goods from over seas Retailers; sold these goods in general stores Work itself changed dramatically 2. Manufacturing spread very quickly Small scale artisan work shops were replaced by large factories Hundreds of workers, and were more mechanized Production process was more closely monitored Large bureaucracy; people who made sure people showed up to work on time and did their jobs properly, and didn’t waste time and materials Professional managers Didn’t know how to do it, but knew how it SHOULD be done CONTROL; shifted from workers to management Transformation of the service sector occurred Commercial revolution Need more transportation More railroads, more ships More firms to service the industries ^in turn meant moer jobs for the service sector More opportunities in the retail sector; relatively large (department stores) Pool of potential customers grew because of transportation; expanded their stores Bought in bulk; they were able to undersell compared to smaller stores Therefore those disappeared. Ex. Walmart They were able to get stuff through the mail (1884; eatons was the first one with a catalogue “retail bible”) 3. a. industrial revolution created the working class Before this, there was none They were independent commodity producers; self employed Small number were hired artisans, labour workers, etc Only had their labour to sell Factories still needed large numbers of workers; didn’t need to be skilled because machines did most of the skilled and heavy work Everyone could do it Developed unskilled or semi skilled wage earners Mechanization and new management technique meant large increase in productivity and profit Factory work also meant fixed working hours Unlike mining and lumbering All year rather than seasonal Greater chance of full time Now unskilled workers were able to become semi skilled workers Step up in status and in pay Mechanization made things easy and less demanding Steam powered excavation machines Print and press; no more churning Factory acts/ laws/ legislation Aimed to protect health and safety of workers Cost of accommodations increased just as fast as wage increases 20-25% increase in rent in 1880’s alone in a year No minimum wage laws, mostly women and immigrants received underpayment Half of Canadian working class lived below the poverty line Because many jobs were still seasonal Construction at docks, construction anything Machinery may freeze because of snow and ice, etc Recurrence of recessions Came every three or four years Super frequent at late 1880s Many resulted in living in urban slums Densely packed with people living in bad conditions Many had to rent; even those are really bad Lacked basic amenities Had to go outside The houses were often located nearby Most people weer unable to afford necessities Caused a lot of mortalities and diseases Many infant mortalities; 1 in every 4 died before their first birthday Many wives and kids were forced to go out to make money for the family so that they can make ends meet; factories, begging, newspaper jobs, shining shoes, etc There were child labour laws but they were defied because kids had to come out to work to make ends meet; their income was very important and significant Every artisan had large amount of power because mechanization Unique skills Can tell employers how THEY would do the skills Not easily replaced Machines made artisans skills unimportant and obsolete Easily replaced by machines/ unskilled workers Dehumanization of the industry Scientific management Fredrick taylor “taylorism” Divided or broke down production process into small tasks People did the work over and over again Can improve productivity Can replace costly and demanding artisans with unskilled workers Manufacturers adopted this quickly Profitable Because of this, it made work dehumanizing Lost pride in their work Stressful If they were late for work or fell behind, they were beaten or fined Factory conditioning was often hard and strict Worker compensation laws only applied to some people They still had ot prove that it was their employers negligence was the ones that caused injuries/ health issues Factory laws were largely ineffective Weren’t enough factories inspectors to help enforce the laws Only 1 factory inspector previously Many employers ignored the law Workers sustained injuries and often died because of dangerous chemicals/ old machinery Industrialization was a mixed blessing for the working class Drawbacks for former artisans Positive for unskilled workers 3.b. ii. Opened up new opportunities to work outside of the home They were
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