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HISB41; J09.docx

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Dan Azoulay

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TA: dale barbour; [email protected] UTSC online library catalogue: TERMS: Handicraft, Manufactories, Stephen, Join stock co., Branch plants, Tanneries, Foremen, Utilities Consolidation, Mowers/threshers, Cobalt timmins, Royalties, Mechanized, “pink collar”, division of labour, Per capita, Merchant capital, Pulp and paper 2. Urban industrial revolution changed Canada the most Where people live Country side vs large cities Changed entire life of Canadians Once farmers/ fishers Now manufactory workers/ office workers 1. Rise of modern industry (1880-1900) a. Manufacturing becomes a much more important factor to the economy i. Previously in each village, each town 1. Generally not big (owned by one or two and worth less than 1000 dollars) 2. Much work would’ve been done by hand (small scale production) b. By 1850’s, manufactories were created i. Because of the spread of railroad construction on its way 1. Required steam engines, railway cars, steel rails, machinery; to run and maintain, iron products ii. Larger, and more sophisticated 1. Simply because products were bigger 2. More craftsmen now c. 1870’s, factories were created i. Larger, more solid structures ii. Dozens, sometimes hundreds or workers under one roof iii. 20 years; 25% vs 80% of workers in factories (Hamilton ex.) 1. 5 workers vs 17 workers (more than triple) iv. Factories themselves were more heavily mechanized v. Things are done by steam powered machinery rather than by hand vi. Production process has also changed 1. Much more specialized 2. Each machine/ worker would do a small portion of the final product a. “division of labour” 3. Professional bureaucracy a. Made sure things were being done smoothly 4. Output per worker doubled as a result of the new process 5. Most manufactured goods came from large, highly mechanized companies by early 20 century d. 1880-1910 i. Value of manufactured goods tripled ii. Value of workers in manufacturing sector doubled iii. Took place in Ontario and quebec 1. Places with factories iv. Even in maritimes with stable resources e. 1900’s i. Many shut down in maritimes/ relocated to central Canada; Ontario+quebec f. By WW1 i. Quebec was the main one (most industrialized and urbanized) 1. Majority of Quebecers were involved with manufacturing g. 1931 i. Ontario had 50 different car companies 1. Heavy on manufacturing companies 3. a. Decline of the primary sector Decline of this caused a surplus pool of cheap labour in the expansion of industry Farming was already starting to decline Most of good land had already been taken up Productivity was falling Wheat in Canada vs wheat in America (mid-west) Fewer customers Young people in rural areas are left with no work; therefore looking for new jobs Lumber demand was falling; hurt the maritime and quebec (dependent on exportation of wood) Resulted in larger rates of unemployment Spread of mechanized farmer added to unemployment
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