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HISB62H3 (2)

HISB62 Lecture Two.docx

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David Gugel

HISB62: EARLY MODERN MEDITERRANEAN LECTURE TWO: A GLOBALIZING MEDITERRANEAN Phoenician Colonization - One of the earliest organized Med powers o Approx 1500-300 bce - One of the first colonizing efforts - Existed as a loose confederation of city states, connected by trade and economic exchange - Found many cities around the med area - Carthage – one of the most important findings, today destroyed - Phoenicians were Great rival of Rome o The republic of Rome was also rising at this period o Came into a series of conflicts – the Punic Wars o Rome did not do so well early on in this battle, Phoenician seemed to be able to take over Rome o Wars existed about 100 years, with 3 separate Punic Wars Pre-Alexandrine Greece - Greek world rises to prominence begging around 510 o Athens deposes its dictator and establishes a democratic government; rises to a power largely only challenged by Sparta o Same period sees the likes of Socrates, Plato, Aristotle rise to prominence among the intellectual elite of Athenian society, art and culture flourish o The great rivals of Athens: Theives, Corinth, SPARTA o Sparta: both military government, but did not have the same civilian organization o Greeks were also colonizing power - Colonized Sicily, etc. - By the mid 4h Century, Macedonia rises under Philip II o Greece controlled as far south as Athens o Capitalized on the depleted military power of all city states o By 332 bc, was able to take almost all of Greece down o Dies in 336, taken by Alexander the Great Alexander’s Empire - After Phillip was assassinated, his son Alexander came to power, age 20 - Popularly believed to have been educated by Aristotle himself - Continued his father’s expansionist policies, but far exceeded his father’s wildest imaginings - After his death in 323 bc, his empire was spilt between his generals, creating several independent empires - Ruled 13 years, Conquered Egypt, into Afghanistan, India, etc. - Ptolomeic Empire – created by Alexander’s general Ptolomy o Continued up the 30 bc, when Greece came in - Egypt was the redbasket for all empires, because it was so fertile, etc. Rome, Part I: The Republic - Ruled by Kings until 509 BCE o Apocryphal? o Republic established with Promulgation of “Law of the Twelve Tablets” in 449 BCE  First written down law – was not preserved, content unknown o Hate kings; Rule divided between a powerful “Senate” and two executive, “Consuls”, elected annually - In subsequent centuries, consolidated rule in Italy, and eventually Roman rule was extended throughout the peninsula and Mediterranean world - Got area in Spain and Africa after defeating Cartage in 147BCE Rome Pt. two: Early Empire rd - Rome remained relatively strong until the 3 century - New challenges began to show the strains in holding such a huge empire together - Republican rule worked for a while, but starting the 1 century, started breaking down - The military basis of Rome, a great deal of authority laid in the hands of generals - Two of the best known of this period is Mark Antony (Caesar’s general), Pompey - The first trial: generals got together to make a deal on dividing power? - 1 trial broke down because Caesar’s daughter marries Pompey – did not like it - After breakdown, Pompey put in charge of army fighting Caesar. Eventually goes to war against Caesar, and loses, and gets assassinated - At Pompey’s death, he takes control, named dictator by Roman Senate, and began to rule in his own right - Eyes of March (March 15, 44 BCE) – Caesar goes to the Senate, gets stabbed and murdered by Senate - After the death of J. Caesar in 44 BCE, his heir Octavian (Augustus) spent 14 years consolidating power - Only completed after the defeat of Antony and Cleopatra in 30 BCE, leading to the annexation of Egypt Rome Part Three: Constantine and After - By this time (285BCE), Diocletian decided the Empire needs to be split: East and West, with an Augustus as ruler, and Caesar as executive? o Ruled by the Tetrarchs, only lasted approx. 15 years o Diocletian’s rule marked the height of repression for the fledgling Christian faith. But Christian spread underground, amongst women. Cult of the Saints was created to commemorate the people killed by the Romans under this name. o Western Caesar, Constantine, started massing power towards himself, and went to war - Constantine became sole emperor in 325 BCE after defeating all other members of the Tetrarchy o Even before that, he issued the “Edict of Milan” (312) that legitimized Christianity, though he probably did not convert until later in life – no longer illegal to practice o Shifted his base to Constantinople, and names it after himself - Diasporo – spread of Jewish people across Med - He divided his empire between his three sons, they fight about it despite so. With two survivors, another East-West division was created between them Rome, Part Four: the Fall? - In the decades after Constantine’s death, the Empire was beset by a series of incursions by Germanic tribes o Believed that the Germanic people were themselves pushed out of their territories by the Huns, who may have been pushed by people further East, etc. o Some sought settlement and was incorporated into the Roman state and joined Roman army as auxiliaries (military involvement was a pass into citizenship) o Odoacer was one such general, who deposed Romulus Augustus in 476 to become King o Shortly after his reign, the Ostrogoths kills him and takes over o 476: associated with
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