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lecture 4

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University of Toronto Scarborough

L04 - explain significance of the excerpt - who what where when why how - relation to 20hcentury Europe - essay question 1917 - entrance of US into the war - exit of Russia The Russian Revolution 1917 - 1931 - first successful revolution undertaken the name of Marxism, socialism and the name of working class - powerful symbol for anti-capitalists, imperialists - political movements around the world - creation of the Soviet Union -- challenge Great European Empire & US 1. conditioning Marxism to fit Russian conditions 2. Lenins Professional Revolutionaries in 1917 - led by professionals, not normal people 3. workers state in a peasant country - revolutionary state failed to break out collectivisation (agriculture) - geographically: edge of Europe, massive empire - autocracy - highly resistant to modernization - over 80% of peasants - freed of serfdom in 1861 (Western Europe) - social change mainly in cities (Moscow, St. Petersburg) - modern co-existing with premodern - more intense for newly emerging working class - state-led modernizationindustrialization * appealed to Tsar as a source of good & intervene - minimize hours, employ working conditions, right to elect representatives * population = nave, thought it was just local corruption * treated inhumanely - lack of laws, ability to speak up * highly resistant to reforms more radical forms of protest - Classic Marxism -- revolution to occur in the most developed country with largest working class - modernization in Russia was causing classes to conflict within the countryside (poor peasants and a minority of richer peasants) possibility of revolution - Bolsheviks (majority) led by Vladimir Lenin - Lenin in St. Petersburg argued that revolution was possible in Russia - working class needed to be led by professional revolutionists - Russia = strong autocratic government which suppressed all forms of political parties - secretiverestricted memberships to revolutionary party - more professionally trained = harder to unearth the organization - mass organization = vulnerable without secrecy Lenin = Bolsheviks (represented strain of Marxism) vs. Mensheviks (modern revolutionaries) - capitalism entering countryside
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