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orientation of the Schlieffen plan - move around forts, not Maginot line Weimar Republic, cultural and political turmoil The end of war and its legacy for 20thcentury politics: total war - mobilization of the home front, extension of state planning, militarization of politics cultural legacy of trauma and uncertainty The Paris Peace Settlement Wilsons Fourteen Points redrawing the map of Europe and institutionalizing minorities Treaty of Versailles, 28 June 1919 Weimar - a doomed republic? Stab in the Back and a divided political culture Tensions of modernization: Cities and the New Woman Foreign policy and the Finesse - the Stresemann Era - Weimar Republic 1919 - several countries sending out feelers for peace - compromise peace - without annexation, put everything back together - Austria-Hungary started sending out feelers for peace - destroyed legitimacy - Russias opt out of war - Treaty of Brest-Litovsk - March 3 1919 - harsh conditions - WWI was an unpopular conflict that made Russians lose almost 2 million men - not feasible for power to continue in the war - Lenins continued promise to get Russia out of the war made him popular in his movement - Eastern Front - Russia gets pushed back (loses a large amount of territory) - 1921 civil war - will get parts of it back - Germans able to redirect attention back to Western front - under General Ludendorff (all out attack that would finish Western front, successive attacks on the Marne - hammer BritishFrance drive open gap and go through to Paris) - left too many forces within Eastern front - underestimated materialpsychological American boom gave to British (2 million troops) - Allies opened hole in overextended German line - forced back towards its frontier - wanted compromise peace (but German forces are on FrenchBelgian territory - not in a position to compromise) - undefeated German army - never pushed back to own territory - September 1918 Ludendorff announced victory only possible (position no longer defensible) assuming for peace - peace = call for political changes - deal with Woodrow Wilson - most important Ally - idealistic view in war - need political changereform if wanted to negotiate - new chancellor - Prince Max von Baden 1. chancellor responsible for the Riechstag rather than Kaiser 2. Three Class Voting system (representation proportional to size) - further reforms were also pushed from below (people in the military) - October 29 1918 amongst sailors in Keil - port in Baltic adjusted for last effort - mutiny formed sailors councils modelled under Soviet example - Ludendorff says no point in fighting until the end
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