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Lecture 7

lecture 7

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Democracy of the Masses th 1. What a disappointment the 20 century has been (Winston Churchill, 1922) - the interwar desertion of liberal democracy and the problem of the mass politics 2. Social and economic conditions - challenges of postwar reconstruction - the Great Depression and its solutions - attraction of the Soviet example 3. Fascisms and Popular Fronts - Cominterns class against class policy and the European Left - Popular Front success?: France (1934-1940) - Popular Front failure?: Spain (1931-1939) - parliamentary regimes set up in new constitutions - reluctance in giving power to an authority (authoritarianism) - modeled on French system (Presidents and Prime Ministers) - 14 currencies in 1914 - 27 in 1917 - emerging currenciescountries - democracy seems to be normal state of affairs - no question to what the states would look like - looking for protection and support from the League of Nations (minority treaties) - countries looking for inspirations from the League - USA, Russia, Germany does not endorse the League of Nations (Germany and Russia will join) - Russia little will to support policieseconomic reconstruction of Europe - damaged - Social democracy, fascism, ___________ - dictatorship spreading - Bolshevik turned into one-party, Hungary - Horthey, Fascism in Italy, Portugal 1926 military coup - Primo de Rivera (Spanish), Pilskuski (Poland 1926) - all countries with exception of France, Britain is overruled by some type of dictatorship - mass politics and the rise of liberal democracy - the masses (general workers, women, minorities) are increasingly asking for and to be involved with the political process, spread of the constitutional ___________ - new ways of globalizing masses that became interval for politics -- political parties become machines - paramilitary groups with proportional representation -- flowering of political powers based on ability to mobilize the masses - problems become magnified - proportional representation = fractions - diverge of political responsibilitiesideologies - not a unified and collective goal - parliament highlights divisions - favour or disagree - the average no great dynamic - not natural leaders of society - leaders turn to the right to maintain natural hierarchies - thought authoritarian were dynamic Berdyaev - disillusionment, yearning of collective identity, rushing into some type of societal group that allows them to be more than mere individuals - places capitalism within - dehumanizes the person - treats man as __________ The Great Depression 1929 - 1936 - dates generally vary as there are different markers for when the depression started - economic conditions falling within Britain before 1929 - demobilization - economic dislocation, unemployment, inflation
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