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Lecture 9

lecture 9

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L09 The Second World War Making the Volksgemeinschaft - race and the Nazi regime [national community to define and exclude various components of society] - consent and coercion in daily life Hitlers Foreign Policy, 1933-1939 [steps leading to the war] - revising the Treaty of Versailles [most mobilizing political platforms] - Lebensraum [conservative ideology of living space, encircled by enemies] Appeasement, 1935-1939: the only logical course? [diplomatic policy by Britain and France to respond to Germanys expansionist aims] - Chamberlain and the climate of appeasement The Second World War and Nazi ideology - colonizing Europe - the Final SolutionHolocaust Creating the Volkgemeinschaft - defining and excluding racial enemies 1933 - Jews are excluded from position in the civil service, teaching, national health service, journalism, theatre and film - boycotting of Jewish shops and businesses organized - organized from the top, to make acts of violence look spontaneous (from below) - quotas on Jews in universities and public high schools imposed - law for the Prevention of Genetically Diseased Offspring institutes sterilization of individuals with various conditions assumed to be hereditary (such as physical deformity, schizophrenia, alcoholism) -- sterilized up to 400 000 - murdered children under 3 with disabilities - anything that made an individual look like that they dont contribute to the society -- encourage Jews to emigrate from Germany 1935 - Nuremberg Laws: the Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honour bans new marriages between Aryans and Jews; the Reich Citizenship Law strips Jews of their German citizenship - how to determine Jewish, mixed status becomes complicated and invades personal life - Aryan passports to prove that you are an Aryan in order to undertake basic aspects of everyday life (marriage, work, ride railways) -- not issued by the state, has to make them up themselves from post office tracing ancestry in racial categories - progressive exclusion of Jews from shops [+ public violence seclusion, dont go out, cannot take the stress and commits suicide] - by 1941, Jews have to wear the yellow Star of David - viewed to be internal enemies until pointed out 1938 - November 9 Kristallnacht, the Night of Broken Glass - organized by the NSDAP (National Socialist or Nazi Party), over 1000 synagogues are burned and thousands of Jewish shops destroyed - deportations of 20 000 to 30 000 Jews to concentration camps - all Jewish children expelled from school - Nazis assume control of Jewish-owned businesses [hand over] 1939 - Euthanasia campaign - murdering mentally and physically deficient hospital inmates claims over 70 000 lives before halted in August 1941 by public outcry and Church protests - outcry as they are Germans but murder of Jewish do not occur at any point - began with children testing the efficiency of the campaign - from September, Jews are forbidden to own or listen to the radio - Hitler administers a Public _______________ underoebbels
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