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Lecture 10

lecture 10

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University of Toronto Scarborough

L10 - Reordering Europe, East and West - (perhaps) WWII as a social revolution 1. European devastation, 1945 - the impact and legacy of total war - why was there no revolution in Europe after WWII as there was after WWI? 2. Political reordering - Wartime Allied Conferences: Teheran (1943), Yalta (February 1945), Potsdam (July 1945) - the division of Germany and the hardening of Cold War alliances 3. Economic reordering - Marshall Plan (1947-1951) - birth of the welfare state and the reorientation of state responsibilities - the Economic road to European Union - European Coal and Steel Community, 1952 - one who wrote the script for the film was a previous political prisoner - legacy of collaboration with Nazi Party - anticipating demand, sending children to concentration camps - Vichy syndrome - the memory of Vichy and its collaboration almost as a disease - after 1950s urbanization, decline of agriculture - WWI had more territorial readjustment, debate with reparations, issues that define how the WWI ended - what interwar period would look like - does not have polarized political aspect - everything seems to be concentrated about life and deathnow or never - Fascist troops helped out each other ( Spanish Civil War) - increasing stability - two armed nuclear powers (USSR and USA) - photo of Berlin - added more damage (to show power) and edited out arm (stolen from others) -- mass rape of women in Germany - East was genocide, use of ethnic cleansing (wartime policy) - Soviet Union lost 11 million soldiers and 10 million civilians mobilized (1939-1945) - accentuatedincreasing capacity for machinery to create destruction to human body (gas, barbed wire, machine gun) - Cologne, Germany - bomber raids - Firebombing of Drezton - single operation with 35 000 deaths - 17 million combatants, 18-20 civilians lost within the war - trummerfrawen (rubble women) in Berlin - myth of women left to clear streets of rubble - conditions were so bad that women volunteered for these jobs for extra rational tickets - Berlin completely devastated after WWII - need to be rebuilt (at point zero) - displaced persons (around 12 million, several refugee camps still operated until 1960s) forced out of land, Jewish refugees returning from the camps with homes taken over, returning prisoners of war - first choice: Palestine, second choice: _________ - want out of Europe no matter what - all places that were ethnically German for Hitler to incorporate into the Reich expelled - Poland depopulated for Germans to inhabit - people know what would happen to them once Soviets get here, Germans expulsed and into camps - sufferers of Germans in WWII - happy to kick people out of their previous homes - reappropriation vs. seizureappropriation - encouraged national self determination - Gomulka must expel - countries are built on national lines - total displaced reached 90 million, scale of displacements & deaths led to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Geneva Convention in 1951
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