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Lecture 11

lecture 11

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University of Toronto Scarborough

Reordering Empires at home and abroad WWII as a social revolution - the rise of the welfare state - the case of Britain - the social market - Germanys path to economic modernity - the gulag and the smokestack economies of Eastern Europe Reimagining Europe as an economic entity - the first steps towards unification - European Coal and Steel Community (1952) - European Community or Common Market (1957) - decolonization and Europes abandonment of a global political mission - the case of Algeria Europe tries to reclaim politics? 1968 in Paris and Prague - how the economy becomes a mobilizing force of which people could have pride in after politics seemed to have gotten Europe embroiled in an absolutely devastating world conflict discredited - economics became something Europe could be dependent on - what happens to colonies once Europe abandon a political project - 1968 a year of global revolution - May in Paris - hope and onto the streets with workers - the degree of which working class organizations and students coordinated their efforts to a mass general strike fundamentally nothing changed (wanted overhaul of bourgeois system) - Prague - protesting for fundamental human rights and were brutally crushed by invasion by leaders of Warsaw Pact The Marshall Plan (1947-1951) - end of June 1947 - US Secretary of State George C. Marshall designed an economic recovery plan for postwar Europe that committed $12 billion in US loans - amounted to very little aid - no more to 10-20% of capital formation in first years, after, less than 10% - less $29person in Germany -- not incredibly significant amount of money any kind of money given into a developed economy is used more efficiently - educated individuals + infrastructure made money productive money came with conditions 1. Marshall Plan aid was to be spent ON American goods - initiated Americanization [the spread of American culture and values throughout Europe and the globe quintessntially through consumerism] - new markets, new values and life around acts of purchases part of a conscious imperialism on the part of United States - naturally happened when a stronger country counters weak, - instituted USD as reserves for Bretton Woods, American state department injecting money into Europe to keep them away from falling into communism, racialized concerns about what represented America (Jazz and association with poor Africans) 2. promised erasure of class conflicts - neutral ground for national and regional identities - in the growth of this consumer group, French elites afraid of the power of this transatlantic transportation of goods - reconfiguration of warfare state = organized for war welfare state = all elements of economy to be organized around the welfare of an individual - widespread consensus on a more interventionist role of the state in the economy spread
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