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Lecture 12

lecture 12

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University of Toronto Scarborough

L12 - Challenges of Nationalism and Nationalities in Contemporary Europe 1989: the Final Act of the 1917 Revolution - loss of legitimacy - the Soviet system as panorama - end of the Soviet Empire 1991-1992: Nationalism overcome, Nationalism triumphant [stimultaneous breakdown of USSR] - end of the USSR - Treaty of the Maastricht - bloodshed in Yugoslavia An European Identity - what for? - immigrants and national identity in contemporary Europe - crisis of identity - rise of multiculturalism on the European continent - Eastern Europe full of satellite states - two perspectives: fundamentally what occurred from 1989 to 1991 (fundamental loss of legitimacy) and the rise of nationalism (ethnonationalism movements, particularly in USSR) - competing perspectives whether nationalism would be important in the formation of Europe - ethno-federal structure of USSR formed a cracked up system (like a chocolate bar) - flaring of ethnic tension and signing of documents overcoming tensions within an European framework - laicite = extreme dedication in separation for church and state (but not secularism and is not religious) - kept at home discriminatory of religious beliefs (not allowed to wear crossesStar of David) - persistent fear from beginning to end of the fear of communism [fascism seen to be a preferable alternative] - immense power and prestige of Soviet power - a system doomed to fail, failed, and something that is inherentlypathologically unstable and probably not worth the fuss people went through - Prague 1916 - demand for Socialism with a human face - Alexander inspired by 5 Warsaw Pact countries - use of force introduced the Brezhnev (Doctrine) 1964 under Krus____s fall - nonperson = expelled from history in the Soviet context - retreat from thaw and stagnation - anti-socialist degeneration (public calls for reform) - Soviet Union & its military have the responsibility to save turmoil and correct its state - Brezhnev continued public discourse focus on the response of a communist and improving consumer goods - promised the 9 thFYP (increase goods to population, ownership rights to household electronics) = growth rates fell, but more slowly compared to Western -- lagged in 1980s - decaying household situations (shortage of housing communal apartment divided by families), environmental damage increased human health (infant mortality, life expectancy), alcoholism (chronics at 37%) - dilemna - economic transition was necessary but hard to do without social and economic dislocation -- created a working class (cannot be sacrificed) - Margaret Thatcher 1979-1990, Prime Minister of Britain - reformed the economy by sacrificing the working class (not seen to be controversial) - entrepreneurship made more efficient, privatized
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