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Lecture

HISB93H3 Professor Dowler Fall 2009 Lecture Note

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Department
History
Course
HISB93H3
Professor
Wayne Dowler
Semester
Fall

Description
Oct 1 x ,WZDVQ¶W.LHYWKDWHP HUJHGDVWKHFHQWUHRIWKHHDVW6ODYLFVWDWHLWZDV0RVFRZ o Political unity of the Kievan state was ruled by descendents of Riurik.  The senior prince ruled in Kiev, when he died, the next most senior brother took his place. (this worked as long as the brothers thought Kiev was worth having)  Many princes began to see their own city state, not as a stepping stone, but as a place to be developed and passed on to his children. (father to son hereditary rather than between brothers)  Many of the brothers began to settle in their own cities and the state of kievan rus became less and less a federation and rather became a number of cities that fought petty fights. o :K\GLGQ¶WWKHSULQFHVZDQW.LHYDQ\PRUH  Trade and defense was closely linked  By the middle of 12th century, the pressure from the nomads were stronger and trade declined because defense became harder  Venicians began trading with the Byzantine Empire x In the south, the major trade routes shifted to the south and started moving to the west. Kiev started to become a minor trading partner with the Byzantine Empire rather than a major one. x In the north, the volume of trade decreased because there were trade alternatives. The routes went through the Baltic Sea rather than Black Sea. Therefore, trade that once went through Kiev declined.  Nomads occupied north of the Black Sea. x Slav settlers on the steppe experienced raids from the Nomads. x Life in Kiev was becoming dangerous and the cost of defence increased x Novgorod was protected due to its forest location and swampy (natural protection) and had links to the Hanseatic League. Novgorod began to rise. x Kiev became a cushion to protect cities such as Volynia and Galicia from Nomads o The soils in these cities were good o Galicia became the most powerful state in the federation o Prince Roman took over in Volynia and united Galicia o Land owning became important for the Nobility. The Nobility began feuding with the princes for power. o 9RO\QLDHPHUJHGDVDQHZIRUFHXQGHU3ULQFH'DQLHO¶VUXOH(pattern of unity and separation between Volynia and Galicia). o The area of Moscow began to appear as stronger than Kiev. o The northeast grew up with absolutistic traditions o Some argue that there were great continuity www.notesolution.com x In the 12th Century, people travelled from the steppe to the northeast for security x The conditions in the northeast were harsh and because of that the region required a different political and social order than the much more civilized in the south. o The Great Russians emerged due to this o some say that the princes in these regions ruled the same way as the princes in kiev. x In Vladimir-Suzdal, prince Yuri fought for Kiev. He wanted to keep both the city he ruled and the city he wanted to rule. He wanted to establish his family in both cities so that his family became supreme. o He saw kiev as the best way to protect his interest in Vladimir-Suzdal o A new trade route from the west to Novgorod and into the Caspian Sea began to develop (western trade into the middle east) o Yuri was working hard to make Vladimir-Suzdal and Kiev the permanent land for his sons. o When he died, his son Andre Bogoliubskii took over. He continued to develop Vladimir-Suzdal.  He fought over who should control kiev  In 1169, he launched a military regime to capture Kiev. He sacked it (destroyed buildings). He wanted to weaken Kiev to control it, unlike his father.  He puts a puppet on the throne of Kiev and returns to Vladimir-Suzdal. (Kiev is no longer important to him)  In 1174, Andre was assassinated.  3 years of civil was ensXHG,WHQGHGZLWKWKHYLFWRU\RI$QGUH¶V\RXQJHUbrother, Vsevolod  Under his guidance, Vladimir-Suzdal became the dominant state in the federation  The throne of Vladmir-Suzdal became the senior throne (no longer Kiev) and his family became supreme o When Vsevolod died, his sons fought over inheritance o Although the princes fought, they all agreed that no other peoples should rule o The Nobles supported the local princely family x Along with a shift in political power, came a shift in culture o The Christian faith was transferred from Kiev to Vladmir-Suzdal o The princes of Vladmir-Suzdal strongly supported the Church (spent lots of money) o Linguistics changed due to the merger between Slavs and Finnish o Agricultural practices changed due to differences in soil between Kiev and Vladmir-Suzdal o Overtime, it was land that emerged as the basis of wealth in the northeast rather than trade. o some argue that Kiev flourished until the Mongols arrived (probably not) o the Mongols devastated Kiev o long before Mongols came however, KiHY¶VHFRQRPLFGHYHORSPHQWGHFOLQHGDVwell as its population. As population declined, the region was not able to defend itself www.notesolution.com o Galicia, Volynia and Vladmir-Suzdal rivalled Kiev o It was unlikely that Kiev would ever emerge to its former importance www.notesolution.comOct 1 N ,9Z,839.L0;9K,90207J0,89K0.03970419K00,89$O,;L.89,90L9Z,848.4Z o Political unity of the Kievan state was ruled by descendents of Riurik. The senior prince ruled in Kiev, when he died, the next most senior brother took his place. (this worked as long as the brothers thought Kiev was worth having) Many princes began to see their own city state, not as a stepping stone, but as a place to be developed and passed on to his children. (father to son hereditary rather than between brothers) Many of the brothers began to settle in their own cities and the state of kievan rus became less and less a federation and rather became a number of cities that fought petty fights. o :KL399K057L3.08Z,39.L0;,32470 Trade and defense was closely linked By the middle of 12 century, the pressure from the nomads were stronger and trade declined because defense became harder Venicians began trading with the Byzantine Empire N In the south, the major trade routes shifted to the south and started moving to the west. Kiev started to become a minor trading partner with the Byzantine Empire rather than a major one. N In the north, the volume of trade decreased because there were trade alternatives. The routes went through the Baltic Se
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