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HISB93H3 Professor Dowler Fall 2009 Lecture Note

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Wayne Dowler

Oct 6 Period of Mongol Rule N The Khans headed the Mongol Empire (gigantic and powerful) N The Mongols were nomadic people who lived north of China in the steppe N Traditional nomads society was complex and sophisticated. They move their flocks within certain geographical limits on a regular basis. o In order to move large masses, it requires huge organizational skills and mobility o These movements are similar to certain military manoeuvres o The nomads were military organizations o Asiatic nomads were horsemen o Their military system was a cavalry army o Nomads do not live in cities o Nomads were interested in controlling the routes between cities because of interest in commerce (trade) o The Russian steppe can be viewed as an ocean and the cities on the edge were the ports. Whoever controlled the steppe, controlled the cities o 1206, Mongol clan lord, Genghis Khan, united all of the Mongol clans into a sort of federation o The state created by Genghis was a federation of the clan o Each clan was assigned its grazing area o At the head, was a clan lord who had officers under his command o Below the officers were commoners (took orders and carried out the orders) o Below them were slaves (POW) o All of the clan lords were subject to Genghis Khan. o The Mongols were so effective as a military and political force because of the army o Each clan was divided into A Thousand (large enough to produce and maintain 100 cavalry men) o ,.K Z,8/L;L/0/L394 8,3/9K03L3949038 o Each group had its own commander and he was responsible of recruiting and army o The penalty for leaving the group was death for the deserter and the commander o Genghis had an elite guard of 10000 o With this military machine, he captured north china and Beijing (south china remained under Chinese control) o The seizure of North China was important for the Mongol development (access to technology and exposed them to learning and the arts, became a centre for culture) o Genghis created a beauracracy which enabled the Mongols to impose power and authority o *03JKL88J4,OZ,894.70,90, universal trading empire under Mongol control
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