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HISB93H3 Professor Dowler Fall 2009 Lecture Note

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Wayne Dowler

Oct 8 th N Moscow began in the first half of 12 Century N Small city belonging to the princes on Rustov-Suzdal N As more people moved to north eastern regions, Moscow benefitted N Because the north east was less developed than Kiev, a stronger prince was needed to organize the region N The Veche principle (town council) did not evolve strongly in the north east as it did in the west and southwest N The princes took over the north east territories before anyone settled there (the princes preceded settlement) N In Kiev, the settlement had preceded the princely rule N In the northeast, the princes believed the land belonged to them. They gave it to the settlers for use rather than ownership. In kiev, the peasants owned the land. N Monopoly on land was one of the sources of Russian absolutism. N Moscow began as a member of this new culture but it was one of the least developed in culture whereas cities like Vladimir flourished N It was a frontier town (rough, crude place) but economically successful N Moscow was destroyed by Mongols and this devastation was merely a setback because it began to redevelop and surpass its past status N The first real prince of Moscow was Daniel N He received it as his hereditary estate between 1261-1268 N He was quite astute and he established a pattern by expanding the territory under his patrimony N He did this by bringing other town under his jurisdictions N The princes were not fighters, avoided war, but they used all other means to occur territories (opportunists) N The purchased the territory, marriage alliances etc N Through such means, Moscow had extended itself along the Moscow River (key to control the watershed) N It was a slow process of expansion N Moscow was primarily a trading city and its borders made it advantageous N It was a desirable place to settle and population grew rapidly N One rival of Moscow was the city of Tver. N This struggle was more for the control of Vladimir (which branch of the family would get the patent) N The princes of Vladimir was the senior princes N In order to occupy the throne, you had to have the patent N This set the stage for a long period of struggle N The contest began in 1304 and lasted until 1446 when Moscow finally won (there was some warfare) N Moscow won because the Khans realized that it was in their best interest to strengthen Moscow so they assisted them in the expense of Tver. They did this because Tver was exposed to attacks and political influence with Lithuania. Tver wanted to maintain good relations with Lithuania and signed various contracts of alliance. Moscow princes did not have any connections to Lithuania, they were loyal to the Mongols. The second reason was that the princes of Tver quarraled with the Metropolitan Church. The Metropolitan and his successors retaliated by favouring Moscow over Tver. The influence of the ChurcKZ,8K:J0,3/8:55479419K0097454OL9,3J,;0O09LJL2,.\9448.4Z¶8.O,L241 Vladimir. Moscow was fortunate too. The princes of Moscow were good businessmen who knew how to build up the economy. Ivan Kalita, for example, secured the right to collect tribute for the Mongols. His successors also took full advantage of this. Also, most of the princes tended to live a long time and Moscow enjoyed continuity whereas Tver experienced turnover of princes. N During this contest, an important change happened in the method of succession. The change was from brothers to father and son succession. N Changes occurred in social systems. At first was the princely family, below were the military servitors who owned large landed hereditary estate (in Moscow, land ownership was very important) known as the Votchina. The man owns it so he can pass it down to his children. From this group, grew the Boyar elites. This elite were families who had a traditional hereditary right to give council to the prince. This elite formed the Boyar Duma (a place where council was given, a thinking group). The boyar elite in Muscovy was different from the one that was arising in Western Europe. In the west, the boyar was formed to resist the central authority. Most of the boyars did not use their states in the form of authority. Instead, they were partners with the prince. They agree that to absolutism as long as they share in the power. In Russia, you do not get aristocratic tendency as you do in the west.
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