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HISB93H3 Professor Dowler Fall 2009 Lecture Note

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Wayne Dowler

Oct 22 N 1385, there was a personal union of the thrones of Poland and Lithuania (Grand Duke of Lithuatha was the King of Poland. N By 15 century, this relation was in place N Lithuania remained a separate administrative unit from Poland N Most of the Russia Or9K4/4[545:O,9L43L3/L9K:,3L,3545:O,9L43702,L30/:3/07:N08 control N Polonization and catholization affected the upper classes of Lithuania (was more attracted to it) N 1539, a major step towards Polonization was taken when a social structure was introduced. This structure included the Pans (great noble families) who had power and influence. Next were the szlachta (gentry, lesser nobles). The Pans were represented by the Rada (a kind of House of Lords or Senate) and it had veto powers over the decision of the King. N In 1566, Lithuania became closer to Poland when the Szlachta also got delegate rights through the Seym. N Lithuania and Poland now have identical political structures N Poland annexes Lithuania because of this. N This political system is aristocratic (the nobles have the power) and the princes are weak. It was not democratic. The peasants had no say whatsoever. N In Russia, this is the exact opposite, princes are very powerful, more than the boyars. N Frequently, the interests of the great lords and the lesser lords did not coincide. N As a result, there was a lot of conflict in Poland and Lithunia N This led the Szlachta to press for union with Poland because they believed if they could unite their forces with the Polish Szlachta, they would be able to have greater influence N The problem with this was that the Rada was able to block this union. N !4O,3/8,/2L3L897,9L438L25O\,330[0/9K0$4:9K073K,O141/L9K:,3L,L3.O:/L3J Kiev. N This act weakened Lithuania and the Pans in Lithuania had no choice but to accept the union N A large part of West Russia comes under Polish rule. N The region that the Poles annexed had been seriously underpopulated (devastated from Mongol invasion) N When the Golden Horde broke up, the Crimean Khanate raided the area often th th N In the 15 and 16 century, a new force, the Cossacks (comes from the work Kazak which means an adventurer) introduces security into the area N The first Cossacks were Tatars and joined by fugitive. They are not an ethnic group, they are an occupation. N Lithuanians had encouraged the Cossacks because they became as border guards from raids N The relative security that the Cossacks brought to the region soon made it desirable for people to settle in this area N 1540, Kiev was once again thriving N Most of the earlier settlers were engaged in fishing and fur trade rather than agriculture N However, it began to attract peasant settlers because Polish rule was weak there N The settlers received protection from the Tatars from the Cossacks
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