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Lecture

HISB93H3 Professor Dowler Fall 2009 Lecture Note

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Department
History
Course
HISB93H3
Professor
Wayne Dowler
Semester
Fall

Description
NOV 5 x In the cities and towns of Russia was where the agitation occurred that led to the Ulozhenie x Very few cities had developed into trade centres x Novgorod was an exception but it was badly destroyed by Ivan III and Ivan the Terrible x Most towns in Muscovy were military centres rather than commerce and manufacturing x Around this centre was the market centre (posad) x The number of artisans and skilled craftsmen was small. They never developed a sense of togetherness. And they did not develop the guild rather functioning on their own x The law code divided population of Muscovy into socialist states x Each estate had functions that was performed on behalf of the state x States were service gentry, peasants, townsfolk and Orthodox clergy x The town estate was very small. The people who were registered as urban dwellers was low x One of the problems with towns was that townspeople like the peasants often left the towns and went to border to avoid taxes. This meant that an important taxpaying part of the population kept going missing x ODZFRGHUHVWULFWHGSHRSOHIURPOHDYLQJWKHWRZQEXWLWZDVQ¶WWRRVXFFHVVIXO x By the end of time of troubles, the towns are underpopulated x There were efforts to restrore the towns by bringing back people. These efforts did not work x The ulozhenie tried again to tie them down. It said that wherever people were in 1660, they had to stay there. They could not leave x Living in towns was hard. As a result, many townsmen had made themselves voluntary slaves in order to survive x The ulozhenie made it illegal for people to volunteer to be slaves. There were punishments for violation of these laws such as being whipped in public or exiled to Siberia x Despite this, townspeople kept running away x Another law was established that anyone who moved or married someone from another town would be executed x Still people moved x 1682, another law said that wherever they were at that time, they had to stay there x A major problem was economic competition between different communities x People would set up booths in posad and VRPHRIWKHPGLGQ¶WKDYHWRSD\WD[HVDVWKH\ZHUHnot registered. This made it hard for townspeople to compete as they were paying taxes x $QRWKHUJURXSLQWKHVXEDUEDQVZHUHWKHVWUHO¶WV\7KH\JRWQRZDJHVLQVWHDGWKH\ZHUHSDLGwith the right to pay. Therefore, they were also in competition with registered artisans x Almost all of the small trade and production was in the hand of the Russians. It was not very sophisticated and organized. For example, wholesale and retail trade and the transportation of goods had to be done by one person whereas in the west, it was a lot more divided and specialization (capitalism) x There were some large scale merchant operations but they had their problems. Russian merchants were not free from the state. They were organized into guilds that were created by the state that brought them under state control. x You became a merchant by being appointed to a guild based on how much capital you had www.notesolution.com x Once you were appointed, you still had to fulfill your organization to the state x The merchants would trade on behalf of the state for commission which was little x Merchants served as custom officers in border cities and only after they fulfilled these responsibilities could they trade privately x Native merchants controlled a lot of domestic trade in Muscovy x Foreigners dominated foreign exporting x Richard Chancellor arrived on behalf of the English Muscovy Company x The Muscovy Company sent its traders into the ports. They organized them to the ports and then shipped them out too x Ivan III made them a monopoly but other foreigners were given special priviledges in return for fees. This competition made fees higher but it prevented Russians to trade. x Foreign traders had more capital and they were better organized so it was very hard for them to compete x Russian appealed to the government to limit how much foreigners could trade inside the country x When the lawcode was passed, the merchants got a lot of what they wanted x It bound people to the town and all people were ordered to live in the posad, had to register. x You could not move to the subarbs, and the posad was extended to include the subarbs x The only execSWLRQZHUHWKHVWUHO¶WV\7KH\FRXOGFRQWL QXHWRWUDGHRXWVLGHRIWKHSRVDGEXWnow they had to pay taxes x Once the suburbs was included in the posad, new suburbs could not be created x Peasants and other people who did not pay taxes before were forbidden to own businesses x This law was resented by landlords and monastaries x It reduced their profits x A slight concession was made that allowed peasants to sell through carts x The Muscovy company had to pay taxes and other foreigners were also taxes. Various monopolies were lost x 1667, a further law excluded all foreigners of retail trade x The Ulozhenie offered some economic protection but the price of this protection was that no one could move x The scope for development for capitalism in the country was very limited x The clause in the Ulozhenie that prevented people from volunteering to slavery was resented x The government abolished slavery because slaves did not do military service and did not pay taxes x The Church suffered restrictions due to the lawcode. It was forbidden for the Church to H[SDQGLW¶VODQGRZQHUVKLS1RORQJHUFRXOGSHRSOHJLYHWKHLUSURSHUWLHVWRWKH&KXUFKEXWthey could keep the lands they already had x The Church ensued justice on employees of the Church. Now, clergy were in charge of the Monastery Prikaz that oversaw the Church. x The Ulozhenie is the first step into changing the Church from being an equal partner to the state to a subordinate x The state remained very interested in learning from the west x Muscovy had begun to encourage immigration of skilled foreigners but they wanted to limit the contact between these immigrants and Russian locals x Tsar Alekseii created a new subarbs for these foreigners www.notesolution.com x Foreigners continued to teach Russians how to make what they imported x Mining techniques were improved and other industries were introduced such as paper mills, silk and velvet factories, lime harvesting and so on x There were Russian entrepreneurs who managed to accumulate capital for investment x The most important were the Stroganov. They operated vast salt works, iron mined, traded in furs, exported grains, silk and caviar and built a large enterprise x They were the model of Russian capitalism. These people were despised by Russians x 7KH8OR]KHQLHORFNHG7VDU¶VVXEMHFWVLQWRGLVWL QFWJURXSVEDVHGRQWKHLUUHVSRQVLELOLWLHV x What the law said did not describe what was happening. In fact, the socialist estates were poorly defnied. There were lots of people who did not fit in and new groups came in who did not conform x For all the incompleteness, the Ulozhenie did leave a large mark x It removed half of the peasant population away from landlord care and isolated them culturally from other people of the society x The Stenka Razin rebellion marked a split between conservative peasantry and a new elite that was westernizing. This cultural gap grew steadily x Another price paid was the abdication of the service class from political life x So in return for the state guaranteeing their status, they went away from politics x There was a significant economic and military cost due to this lawcode. It tied military technology and organization to a serf economy x The west was developing their military faster than the Russians x The stDWHLWVHOIKDGWREHFRPHWKHSURJUHVVLYHFKDQJHEHFDXVHLW¶VSHRSOHGLGQRWZDQWWRchange. x The government was the advanced element in the country. www.notesolution.comNOV 5 N In the cities and towns of Russia was where the agitation occurred that led to the Ulozhenie N Very few cities had developed into trade centres N Novgorod was an exception but it was badly destroyed by Ivan III and Ivan the Terrible N Most towns in Muscovy were military centres rather than commerce and manufacturing N Around this centre was the market centre (posad) N The number of artisans and skilled craftsmen was small. They never developed a sense of togetherness. And they did not develop the guild rather functioning on their own N The law code divided population of Muscovy into socialist states N Each estate had functions that was performed on behalf of the state N States were service gentry, peasants, townsfolk and Orthodox clergy N The town estate was very small. The people who were registered as urban dwellers was low N One of the problems with towns was that townspeople like the peasants often left the towns and went to border to avoid taxes. This meant that an important taxpaying part of the population kept going missing N O,Z.4070897L.905045O01742O0,;L3J9K094Z3-:9L9Z,8399448:..0881:O N By the end of time of troubles, the towns are underpopulated N There were efforts to restrore the towns by bringing back people. These efforts did not work N The ulozhenie tried again to tie them down. It said that wherever people were in 1660, they had to stay there. They could not leave N Living in towns was hard. As a result, many townsmen had made themselves voluntary slaves in or
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