Chapter 3: Defining the Agenda:
Both new canadians and candian professions “gatekeepers” had expectations as to what life will be like.
Candian gatekeepers included social workers, mental health speaclists citizenship officials.
Guiding newcomers adjustment to the candian way. All had main aim: problem solvers and influence newcomers and their impact.
Shared deire for healthy political body – om phusyical and emotional as well as moral and sexul terms.
Reform campigns were to “uplift” and “contain”. Target both men and women.
Postwar gatekeeps to normalize conventional ideals of proper gender roles, the family and sexual behavior sought to cultivate good
citizen who would be perform their civic duties.
Paradoox: gatekeeprs envisioned newcomers as thinking people yet were weary of the complacent newcomers.: discoraged politucak
Democracy and citizenship
Two roots in concept of modern citizenship : liberal individualis and civic republicanism.
Contradictory pulls individual rights and social welfare gurantees, as well as a princle particpatory democracy were in much evidence in
Reception workers critized assimulation but rather integration. : However not the case: The candian majority had the authority to define
and enforce candian norms to which newcomers were expected to conform.
“ Unity in diversity” “modest form of cultural pluralism”.
Cultural pluralism : narrowly restricted : individual talents and achievements, and thus od liberal capitalism opprtunities and freedoms and
of cultural forms, such as food, dance, and music, that were considered to be least threatening to the state and its dominant classes.
Cultural pluralism offered practical strategy for “consolidating the nation” - p51.
From which mass migration was seriously altering the makeup of canadian society.
Gatekeepers invited public to help suppressed europenas to adjust to candian life and failure to do so would result in dysfunctional
families, moral decline.
These self-destructive newcomers had to be both guided and contained. “newcomer adrift” - p52.
Though gatekeepers were need of containment as means for their own good but were also geniunely cocerned.
Show sympathy and patience.
Social workers and mental health experts expressed that old candians help new comers to integrated: family and child experts stressed
the positive effects that such warmth can have on them. To this length canadian reception workers offered many suggestions for welcoming newcomers:
Invite to dinner and tea, big/ litle siter. Volunteer at local settlement house, semi-private charity agencies. Help them learn english. Body
language. Dancing “wonderful mixer”
omnious warning that failure of candians to carry out their duties can endanger democratic society.
Failure to integreate would result in alienated newcomers away from mainstream would undermine national morale, exhaust welfare
resources and become vulnerable to communist propaganda: aniti-social selfdestructuve: psychologuist.
In poltical terms: newcomers easy prey for communists esp since they shares culture and language.
Seduc them back to red slavery. : might prefer to give up democracys intellectual and political freedom for government controlled
POSTWAR EXPERTS SAW RGE ISSUES OF IMMIGRATION, CITIZENSHIp, DEMOCRACY AND EXPANDED WELFARE AS
Though the gatekeepers feared dangers of newcomers alike they differed in their defnition of the problem and their propsal remedies.
Ex: some said that the candians had to demonstrate the superiority of democracy. Best antidote to societ communism threat was a mix of
political liberalism and globla open markets.
Kaye: be patient shouldnt be sentive or too quick to judge.
Cannot expect to accept “our way: nor force them to become canadian. Takes time.
Demonstrate by example of education. “ Better food, in greater quantity, mechanized gadgets, lose their importance after a while, we
must show them ethical ideas, better habbits and customs, better saner way of living and willigness to share our country- in other words
CONTRAST: conservative gatekeepers ex chambers of commerce and imperial daughters of the empire: against the idea of anything
communist. For them democracy always superior.
Discourage long-term dependency. Access to some but not all national welfare resources.
For social democrats : they were citizens of globe effots to ease war tensions. All this required a well-integrated plan of reception and
GENDER: balancing act was tricky : two-tired gendered welfare system: women had rigid definition of good moral character.
Wide-spread fears of deportation.
Conservative moralists: remove drinking. FROM NEWCOMER ADRIFE TO INTEGRATED CITIZEN?
Gatekeeprs concerned with formal level integration – legal and political citizenship : 5 year residencye and pass examiantion.
Iode : make test more hard. “superioty of democracy”
Campaignes to imporve capaignes to improve or uplife or mod