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HISC65H3 (19)
Lecture 2

Lecture 2 September 19. 2012.doc

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Natalie Rothman

HISC65Lecture 2 - September 19, 2012 Key Themes: • Early Settlement in the Lagoon • Venice as a bridge between Byzantium and the Franks • Venetian political consolidation and de facto autonmy • The “Pious Theft” of St. Mark’s Body • The Fourth Crusade and its Aftermath Key Terms: • Veneto • Terraferma(mainland) • Cassiodorus • Stato da Mar(maritime state) • Doge • Translation of St.Mark • Pax Tibi Marce, Evangelista Meus • Winged Lion • The Fourth Crusade(1202-1204) • Geoffroy de Villehardouin(1160-c.1212) • Enrioce Dandolo(dogeship:1192-1205) • The Sack of Constantinople - Arial photo of Venice, northwest tip of the Adriatic Sea - German map of the Venetian Empire(sea based empire controlling other islands) - Map showing the Venice and the proximity to the mainland - Origins of Venice - shrouded in myth - early settlement, encouragement from Barbarian tribes - 421 King of Vivigoths leading an invasion (no evidence) - 453 Attila the Hun invasion, believe he was buried there - The lagoon was never the abandoned marshlands, in fact it was a farmland in earlier time. - Venice: The Early Centuries - 537 Cassiodorus Roman Senator - Suggests that Venice was a more a man made structure vs. a natural settle- ment. HISC65Lecture 2 - September 19, 2012 - the ability to change between solid ground and water based - comparison to the Greek islands - in relation to Byzantine structures - The Lombard invasions(T) - exodus to the Veneto - The Lombards came to stay - shifting balance of power, -> transformed the lagoon Map: Lombard and Byzantine territories on the Italian Pennisula - political challenge Lombard vs. Byzantine - Byzantine presence was not as visible in comparison to Lombard - nature of the relationship is unknown (no documents, evidence) - Map of Grado - Map of Torcello - Map of Eraclea - Map of Malamocco - Basilica of Santa Maria Assunta, Torcello - proof of Byzantine presence - built as early as c. 639-640 - No clear separation between political(state) and religious power. The emperor was both the head of the church and the head of state. - Image: 12th cen. Byzantine mosaic in Torcello. - Artistic and cultural influence - Three Venetian Doges - Reputed first doge of Venice (Paoluccio Anafesto) - some historians believe he was not elected but might have been a representa- tive of Byzantium - established the borders - political cohesion - Teodato Ipato - moved the main city to Malamocco - Feudal medieval symbolism HISC65Lecture 2 - September 19, 2012 II. Venice as a bridge between the Franks and Byzantium - 774 - Franks defeat the Lombard - Charlemagne declared emperor - first time of division between east and west - religious and political division - 810 attempt to take over the Lagoon - Duel challenge : shallow waters - Venice was free from the feudal struggles of power - No evidence that a Venetian decision was officially Byzantine - Venice became a official intermediary, channel of communication as a connecting point. setting course to its history III. Venetian Political Consolidation - Rialto (the highest bank of the river) - more protected vs. Malamocco - early moment of consolidation - political center (Rialto) - options to legitimacy - religious artifacts(relics) - sacredness - patron Saints for cities - religious fear The “Pious Theft” of St. Mark’s Body - St. Mark’s body stolen from Alexandria in Egypt and transferred to Venice - Became a significant historic event. - Belief that St.Mark came to the lagoon and established Aquileia and converted the people to Christianity - Acquiring the relics
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